functions/New-DbaLogin.ps1

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function New-DbaLogin {
<#
 .SYNOPSIS
 Creates a new SQL Server login
  
 .DESCRIPTION
 Creates a new SQL Server login with provided specifications
   
 .PARAMETER SqlInstance
 The target SQL Server(s)
  
 .PARAMETER SqlCredential
 Allows you to login to SQL Server using alternative credentials
  
 .PARAMETER Login
 The Login name(s)
   
 .PARAMETER Password
 Secure string used to authenticate the Login
  
 .PARAMETER HashedPassword
 Hashed password string used to authenticate the Login
  
 .PARAMETER InputObject
 Takes the parameters required from a Login object that has been piped into the command
  
 .PARAMETER LoginRenameHashtable
 Pass a hash table into this parameter to change login names when piping objects into the procedure
  
 .PARAMETER MapToCertificate
 Map the login to a certificate
  
 .PARAMETER MapToAsymmetricKey
 Map the login to an asymmetric key
  
 .PARAMETER MapToCredential
 Map the login to a credential
  
 .PARAMETER Sid
 Provide an explicit Sid that should be used when creating the account. Can be [byte[]] or hex [string] ('0xFFFF...')
  
 .PARAMETER DefaultDatabase
 Default database for the login
  
 .PARAMETER Language
 Login's default language
  
 .PARAMETER PasswordExpiration
 Enforces password expiration policy. Requires PasswordPolicy to be enabled. Can be $true or $false(default)
  
 .PARAMETER PasswordPolicy
 Enforces password complexity policy. Can be $true or $false(default)
  
 .PARAMETER Disabled
 Create the login in a disabled state
  
 .PARAMETER NewSid
 Ignore sids from the piped login object to generate new sids on the server. Useful when copying login onto the same server
  
 .PARAMETER Force
 If login exists, drop and recreate
   
 .PARAMETER WhatIf
 Shows what would happen if the command were to run. No actions are actually performed
  
 .PARAMETER Confirm
 Prompts you for confirmation before executing any changing operations within the command
  
 .PARAMETER Silent
 Use this switch to disable any kind of verbose messages
  
 .NOTES
 Tags: Login
 Author: Kirill Kravtsov (@nvarscar)
 dbatools PowerShell module (https://dbatools.io, clemaire@gmail.com)
 Copyright (C) 2016 Chrissy LeMaire
  
 This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
  
 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
  
 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 
 .LINK
 https://dbatools.io/New-DbaLogin
  
 .EXAMPLE
 New-DbaLogin -SqlInstance Server1,Server2 -Login Newlogin
  
 You will be prompted to securely enter the password for a login [Newlogin]. The login would be created on servers Server1 and Server2 with default parameters.
  
 .EXAMPLE
 $securePassword = Read-Host "Input password" -AsSecureString
 New-DbaLogin -SqlInstance Server1\sql1 -Login Newlogin -Password $securePassword -PasswordPolicy -PasswordExpiration
  
 Creates a login on Server1\sql1 with a predefined password. The login will have password and expiration policies enforced onto it.
  
 .EXAMPLE
 Get-DbaLogin -SqlInstance sql1 -Login Oldlogin | New-DbaLogin -SqlInstance sql1 -LoginRenameHashtable @{Oldlogin = 'Newlogin'} -Force -NewSid -Disabled:$false
  
 Copies a login [Oldlogin] to the same instance sql1 with the same parameters (including password). New login will have a new sid, a new name [Newlogin] and will not be disabled. Existing login [Newlogin] will be removed prior to creation.
  
 .EXAMPLE
 Get-DbaLogin -SqlInstance sql1 -Login Login1,Login2 | New-DbaLogin -SqlInstance sql2 -PasswordPolicy -PasswordExpiration -DefaultDatabase tempdb -Disabled
  
 Copies logins [Login1] and [Login2] from instance sql1 to instance sql2, but enforces password and expiration policies for the new logins. New logins will also have a default database set to [tempdb] and will be created in a disabled state.
#>

    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess = $true, DefaultParameterSetName = "Password")]
    param (
        [parameter(Mandatory, Position = 1)]
        [Alias("ServerInstance", "SqlServer")]
        [DbaInstanceParameter[]]$SqlInstance,
        [PSCredential]$SqlCredential,
        [Alias("Name", "LoginName")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "Password", Position = 2)]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "PasswordHash")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "MapToCertificate")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "MapToAsymmetricKey")]
        [string[]]$Login,
        [parameter(ValueFromPipeline = $true)]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "Password")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "PasswordHash")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "MapToCertificate")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "MapToAsymmetricKey")]
        [object[]]$InputObject,
        [Alias("Rename")]
        [hashtable]$LoginRenameHashtable,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "Password", Position = 3)]
        [Security.SecureString]$Password,
        [Alias("Hash","PasswordHash")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "PasswordHash")]
        [string]$HashedPassword,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "MapToCertificate")]
        [string]$MapToCertificate,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "MapToAsymmetricKey")]
        [string]$MapToAsymmetricKey,
        [string]$MapToCredential,
        [object]$Sid,
        [Alias("DefaulDB")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "Password")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "PasswordHash")]
        [string]$DefaultDatabase,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "Password")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "PasswordHash")]
        [string]$Language,
        [Alias("Expiration","CheckExpiration")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "Password")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "PasswordHash")]
        [switch]$PasswordExpiration,
        [Alias("Policy","CheckPolicy")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "Password")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "PasswordHash")]
        [switch]$PasswordPolicy,
        [Alias("Disable")]
        [switch]$Disabled,
        [switch]$NewSid,
        [switch]$Force,
        [switch]$Silent
    )
    
    begin {
        if ($Sid) {
            if ($Sid.GetType().Name -ne 'Byte[]') {
                foreach ($symbol in $Sid.TrimStart("0x").ToCharArray()) {
                    if ($symbol -notin "0123456789ABCDEF".ToCharArray()) {
                        Stop-Function -Message "Sid has invalid character '$symbol', cannot proceed." -Category InvalidArgument -Silent $Silent
                        return
                    }
                }
                $Sid = Convert-HexStringToByte $Sid
            }
        }
        
        if ($HashedPassword) {
            if ($HashedPassword.GetType().Name -eq 'Byte[]') {
                $HashedPassword = Convert-ByteToHexString $HashedPassword 
            }
        }
    }
    
    process {
        #At least one of those should be specified
        if (!($Login -or $InputObject)) {
            Stop-Function -Message "No logins have been specified." -Category InvalidArgument -Silent $Silent
            Return
        }
        
        $loginCollection = @()
        if ($InputObject) {
            $loginCollection += $InputObject
            if ($Login) {
                Stop-Function -Message "Parameter -Login is not supported when processing objects from -InputObject. If you need to rename the logins, please use -LoginRenameHashtable." -Category InvalidArgument -Silent $Silent
                Return
            }
        }
        else {
            $loginCollection += $Login
            $Login | ForEach-Object { 
                if ($_.IndexOf('\') -eq -1 -and $PsCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like "Password*" -and !($Password -or $HashedPassword)) {
                    $passwordNotSpecified = $true
                }
            }
        }
        foreach ($instance in $SqlInstance) {
            try {
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Connecting to $instance"
                $server = Connect-SqlInstance -SqlInstance $instance -SqlCredential $sqlcredential
            }
            catch {
                Stop-Function -Message "Failure" -Category ConnectionError -ErrorRecord $_ -Target $instance -Silent $Silent -Continue
            }
            
            foreach ($loginItem in $loginCollection) {
                #check if $loginItem is an SMO Login object
                if ($loginItem.GetType().Name -eq 'Login') {
                    #Get all the necessary fields
                    $loginName = $loginItem.Name
                    $loginType = $loginItem.LoginType
                    $currentSid = $loginItem.Sid
                    $currentDefaultDatabase = $loginItem.DefaultDatabase
                    $currentLanguage = $loginItem.Language
                    $currentPasswordExpiration = $loginItem.PasswordExpiration
                    $currentPasswordPolicyEnforced = $loginItem.PasswordPolicyEnforced
                    $currentDisabled = $loginItem.IsDisabled
                    
                    #Get previous password
                    if ($loginType -eq 'SqlLogin' -and !($Password -or $HashedPassword)) {
                        $sourceServer = $loginItem.Parent
                        switch ($sourceServer.versionMajor) {
                            0 { $sql = "SELECT CONVERT(VARBINARY(256),password) as hashedpass FROM master.dbo.syslogins WHERE loginname='$loginName'" }
                            8 { $sql = "SELECT CONVERT(VARBINARY(256),password) as hashedpass FROM dbo.syslogins WHERE name='$loginName'" }
                            9 { $sql = "SELECT CONVERT(VARBINARY(256),password_hash) as hashedpass FROM sys.sql_logins where name='$loginName'" }
                            default {
                                $sql = "SELECT CAST(CONVERT(VARCHAR(256), CAST(LOGINPROPERTY(name,'PasswordHash')
         AS VARBINARY(256)), 1) AS NVARCHAR(max)) AS hashedpass FROM sys.server_principals
         WHERE principal_id = $($loginItem.id)"

                            }
                        }
    
                        try {
                            $hashedPass = $sourceServer.ConnectionContext.ExecuteScalar($sql)
                        }
                        catch {
                            $hashedPassDt = $sourceServer.Databases['master'].ExecuteWithResults($sql)
                            $hashedPass = $hashedPassDt.Tables[0].Rows[0].Item(0)
                        }
    
                        if ($hashedPass.GetType().Name -ne "String") {
                            $hashedPass = Convert-ByteToHexString $hashedPass
                        }
                        $currentHashedPassword = $hashedPass
                    }
                    
                    #Get cryptography and attached credentials
                    if ($loginType -eq 'AsymmetricKey') {
                        $currentAsymmetricKey = $loginItem.AsymmetricKey
                    }
                    if ($loginType -eq 'Certificate') {
                        $currentCertificate = $loginItem.Certificate
                    }
                    #This method or property is accessible only while working with SQL Server 2008 or later.
                    if ($sourceServer.versionMajor -gt 9) {
                        if ($loginItem.EnumCredentials()) {
                            $currentCredential = $loginItem.EnumCredentials()
                        }
                    }
                }
                else {
                    $loginName = $loginItem
                    $currentSid = $currentDefaultDatabase = $currentLanguage = $currentPasswordExpiration = $currentAsymmetricKey = $currentCertificate = $currentCredential = $currentDisabled = $currentPasswordPolicyEnforced = $null
                    
                    if ($PsCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq "MapToCertificate") { $loginType = 'Certificate' }
                    elseif ($PsCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq "MapToAsymmetricKey") { $loginType = 'AsymmetricKey' }
                    elseif ($loginItem.IndexOf('\') -eq -1) {    $loginType = 'SqlLogin' }
                    else { $loginType = 'WindowsUser' }
                }
                
                if (($server.LoginMode -ne [Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.ServerLoginMode]::Mixed) -and ($loginType -eq 'SqlLogin')) {
                    Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "$instance does not have Mixed Mode enabled. [$loginName] is an SQL Login. Enable mixed mode authentication after the migration completes to use this type of login." -Silent $Silent
                }
                
                if ($Sid) {
                    $currentSid = $Sid
                }
                if ($DefaultDatabase) {
                    $currentDefaultDatabase = $DefaultDatabase
                }
                if ($Language) {
                    $currentLanguage = $Language
                }
                if ($PSBoundParameters.Keys -contains 'PasswordExpiration') {
                    $currentPasswordExpiration = $PasswordExpiration
                }
                if ($PSBoundParameters.Keys -contains 'PasswordPolicy') {
                    $currentPasswordPolicyEnforced = $PasswordPolicy
                }
                if ($PSBoundParameters.Keys -contains 'MapToAsymmetricKey') {
                    $currentAsymmetricKey = $MapToAsymmetricKey
                }
                if ($PSBoundParameters.Keys -contains 'MapToCertificate') {
                    $currentCertificate = $MapToCertificate
                }
                if ($PSBoundParameters.Keys -contains 'MapToCredential') {
                    $currentCredential = $MapToCredential
                }
                if ($PSBoundParameters.Keys -contains 'Disabled'){
                    $currentDisabled = $Disabled
                }
                
                #Apply renaming if necessary
                if ($LoginRenameHashtable.Keys -contains $loginName) {
                    $loginName = $LoginRenameHashtable[$loginName]
                }
                
                #Requesting password if required
                if ($loginItem.GetType().Name -ne 'Login' -and $loginType -eq 'SqlLogin' -and !($Password -or $HashedPassword)) {    
                    $Password = Read-Host -AsSecureString -Prompt "Enter a new password for the SQL Server login(s)"
                }
                
                $newLoginStatus = [pscustomobject]@{
                    Server = $server.Name
                    Login = $loginName
                    Type = $loginType
                    Status = $null
                    Notes = $null
                    DateTime = [DbaDateTime](Get-Date)
                }
                
                #verify if login exists on the server
                if ($existingLogin = $server.Logins[$loginName]) {
                    if ($force) {
                        if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($existingLogin, "Dropping existing login $loginName on $instance because -Force was used")) {
                            try {
                                $existingLogin.Drop()
                            }
                            catch {
                                Stop-Function -Message "Could not remove existing login $loginName on $instance, skipping." -Target $loginName -Silent $Silent -Continue
                            }
                        }
                    }
                    else {
                        Stop-Function -Message "Login $loginName already exists on $instance and -Force was not specified" -Target $loginName -Silent $Silent -Continue
                    }
                }
                
                
                if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($SqlInstance, "Creating login $loginName on $instance")) {
                    try {
                        $newLogin = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Login($server, $loginName)
                        $newLogin.LoginType = $loginType
                                        
                        $withParams = ""
                        
                        if ($loginType -eq 'SqlLogin' -and $currentSid -and !$NewSid) {
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Setting $loginName SID"
                            $withParams += ", SID = " + (Convert-ByteToHexString $currentSid)
                            $newLogin.Set_Sid($currentSid)
                        }
                        
                        if ($loginType -in ("WindowsUser","WindowsGroup","SqlLogin")) {
                            if ($currentDefaultDatabase) {
                                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Setting $loginName default database to $currentDefaultDatabase"
                                $withParams += ", DEFAULT_DATABASE = [$currentDefaultDatabase]"
                                $newLogin.DefaultDatabase = $currentDefaultDatabase
                            }
                            
                            if ($currentLanguage) {
                                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Setting $loginName language to $currentLanguage"
                                $withParams += ", DEFAULT_LANGUAGE = [$currentLanguage]"
                                $newLogin.Language = $currentLanguage
                            }
                            
                            #CHECK_EXPIRATION: default - OFF
                            if ($currentPasswordExpiration) {
                                $withParams += ", CHECK_EXPIRATION = ON"
                                $newLogin.PasswordExpirationEnabled = $true
                            }
                            else {
                                $withParams += ", CHECK_EXPIRATION = OFF"
                                $newLogin.PasswordExpirationEnabled = $false
                            }
                            
                            #CHECK_POLICY: default - ON
                            if ($currentPasswordPolicyEnforced) {
                                $withParams += ", CHECK_POLICY = ON"
                                $newLogin.PasswordPolicyEnforced = $true
                            }
                            else {
                                $withParams += ", CHECK_POLICY = OFF"
                                $newLogin.PasswordPolicyEnforced = $false
                            }
                            
                            #Generate hashed password if necessary
                            if ($Password) {
                                $currentHashedPassword = Get-PasswordHash $Password $server.versionMajor
                            }
                            elseif ($HashedPassword) {
                                $currentHashedPassword = $HashedPassword
                            }
                        }
                        elseif ($loginType -eq 'AsymmetricKey') {
                            $newLogin.AsymmetricKey = $currentAsymmetricKey
                        }
                        elseif ($loginType -eq 'Certificate') {
                            $newLogin.Certificate = $currentCertificate
                        }
                        
                        #Add credential
                        if ($currentCredential) {
                            $withParams += ", CREDENTIAL = [$currentCredential]"
                        }
                        
                        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Adding as login type $loginType"
                        
                        # Attempt to add login using SMO, then T-SQL
                        try {
                            if ($loginType -in ("WindowsUser","WindowsGroup","AsymmetricKey","Certificate")) {
                                if ($withParams) { $withParams = " WITH " + $withParams.TrimStart(',') }
                                $newLogin.Create()
                            }
                            elseif ($loginType -eq "SqlLogin") {
                                $newLogin.Create($currentHashedPassword, [Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.LoginCreateOptions]::IsHashed)
                            }
                            $newLogin.Refresh()
                            
                            #Adding credential
                            if ($currentCredential) {
                                try {
                                    $newLogin.AddCredential($currentCredential)
                                }
                                catch {
                                    $newLogin.Drop()
                                    throw $_
                                }
                            }
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully added $loginName to $instance."
                            $newLoginStatus.Status = "Successful"
                        }
                        catch {
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Failed to create $loginName on $instance using SMO, trying T-SQL."
                            try {
                                if ($loginType -eq 'AsymmetricKey') { $sql = "CREATE LOGIN [$loginName] FROM ASYMMETRIC KEY [$currentAsymmetricKey]" }
                                elseif ($loginType -eq 'Certificate') { $sql = "CREATE LOGIN [$loginName] FROM CERTIFICATE [$currentCertificate]" }
                                elseif ($loginType -eq "SqlLogin") { $sql = "CREATE LOGIN [$loginName] WITH PASSWORD = $currentHashedPassword HASHED" + $withParams }
                                else { $sql = "CREATE LOGIN [$loginName] FROM WINDOWS" + $withParams }

                                $null = $server.Query($sql)
                                $newLogin = $server.logins[$loginName]
                                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully added $loginName to $instance."
                                $newLoginStatus.Status = "Successful"
                            }
                            catch {
                                $newLoginStatus.Status = "Failed"
                                $newLoginStatus.Notes = $_.Exception.GetBaseException().Message
                                $newLoginStatus
                                Stop-Function -Message "Failed to add $loginName to $instance." -Category InvalidOperation -ErrorRecord $_ -Target $instance -Silent $Silent -Continue 3>$null
                            }
                        }
                        
                        #Process the Disabled property
                        if ($currentDisabled) {
                            try {
                                $newLogin.Disable()
                                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Login $loginName has been disabled on $instance."
                            }
                            catch {
                                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Failed to disable $loginName on $instance using SMO, trying T-SQL."
                                try {
                                    $sql = "ALTER LOGIN [$loginName] DISABLE"
                                    $null = $server.Query($sql)
                                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Login $loginName has been disabled on $instance."
                                }
                                catch {
                                    $newLoginStatus.Status = "Failed"
                                    $newLoginStatus.Notes = $_.Exception.GetBaseException().Message
                                    $newLoginStatus
                                    Stop-Function -Message "Failed to disable $loginName on $instance." -Category InvalidOperation -ErrorRecord $_ -Target $instance -Silent $Silent -Continue 3>$null
                                }
                            }
                        }
                        #Display results
                        $newLoginStatus
                    }
                    catch {
                        Stop-Function -Message "Failed to create login $loginName on $instance. Exception: $($_.Exception.InnerException)" -Target $credential -Silent $Silent -InnerErrorRecord $_ -Continue
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}