DscResources/MSFT_WindowsProcess/MSFT_WindowsProcess.psm1

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$errorActionPreference = 'Stop'
Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

# Import CommonResourceHelper for Get-LocalizedData, New-InvalidOperationException, New-InvalidArgumentException
$script:dscResourcesFolderFilePath = Split-Path $PSScriptRoot -Parent
$script:commonResourceHelperFilePath = Join-Path -Path $script:dscResourcesFolderFilePath -ChildPath 'CommonResourceHelper.psm1'
Import-Module -Name $script:commonResourceHelperFilePath

# Localized messages for verbose and error statements in this resource
$script:localizedData = Get-LocalizedData -ResourceName 'MSFT_WindowsProcess'

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Retrieves the current state of the Windows process(es) with the specified
        executable and arguments.
 
        If more than one process is found, only the information of the first process is retrieved.
        ProcessCount will contain the actual number of processes that were found.
 
    .PARAMETER Path
        The path to the process executable. If this is the file name of the executable
        (not the fully qualified path), the DSC resource will search the environment Path variable
        ($env:Path) to find the executable file. If the value of this property is a fully qualified
        path, DSC will use the given Path variable to find the file. If the path is not found it
        will throw an error. Relative paths are not allowed.
 
    .PARAMETER Arguments
        The arguments to the process as a single string.
 
    .PARAMETER Credential
        The credential of the user account to start the process under.
#>

function Get-TargetResource
{
    [OutputType([Hashtable])]
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [String]
        $Path,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [AllowEmptyString()]
        [String]
        $Arguments,

        [Parameter()]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [System.Management.Automation.PSCredential]
        [System.Management.Automation.Credential()]
        $Credential
    )

    Write-Verbose -Message ($script:localizedData.GetTargetResourceStartMessage -f $Path)

    $Path = Expand-Path -Path $Path

    $getProcessCimInstanceArguments = @{
        Path = $Path
        Arguments = $Arguments
    }

    if ($PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Credential'))
    {
        $getProcessCimInstanceArguments['Credential'] = $Credential
    }

    $processCimInstance = @( Get-ProcessCimInstance @getProcessCimInstanceArguments )

    $processToReturn = @{}

    if ($processCimInstance.Count -eq 0)
    {
        $processToReturn = @{
            Path = $Path
            Arguments = $Arguments
            Ensure ='Absent'
        }
    }
    else
    {
        $processId = $processCimInstance[0].ProcessId
        $getProcessResult = Get-Process -ID $processId

        $processToReturn = @{
            Path = $Path
            Arguments = $Arguments
            PagedMemorySize = $getProcessResult.PagedMemorySize64
            NonPagedMemorySize = $getProcessResult.NonpagedSystemMemorySize64
            VirtualMemorySize = $getProcessResult.VirtualMemorySize64
            HandleCount = $getProcessResult.HandleCount
            Ensure = 'Present'
            ProcessId = $processId
            ProcessCount = $processCimInstance.Count
        }
    }

    Write-Verbose -Message ($script:localizedData.GetTargetResourceEndMessage -f $Path)
    return $processToReturn
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Sets the Windows process with the specified executable path and arguments
        to the specified state.
 
        If multiple process are found, the specified state will be set for all of them.
 
    .PARAMETER Path
        The path to the process executable. If this is the file name of the executable
        (not the fully qualified path), the DSC resource will search the environment Path variable
        ($env:Path) to find the executable file. If the value of this property is a fully qualified
        path, DSC will use the given Path variable to find the file. If the path is not found it
        will throw an error. Relative paths are not allowed.
 
    .PARAMETER Arguments
        The arguments to pass to the process as a single string.
 
    .PARAMETER Credential
        The credential of the user account to start the process under.
 
    .PARAMETER Ensure
        Specifies whether or not the process should exist.
        To start or modify a process, set this property to Present.
        To stop a process, set this property to Absent.
        The default value is Present.
 
    .PARAMETER StandardOutputPath
        The file path to write the standard output to. Any existing file at this path
        will be overwritten.This property cannot be specified at the same time as Credential
        when running the process as a local user.
 
    .PARAMETER StandardErrorPath
        The file path to write the standard error output to. Any existing file at this path
        will be overwritten.
 
    .PARAMETER StandardInputPath
        The file path to get standard input from. This property cannot be specified at the
        same time as Credential when running the process as a local user.
 
    .PARAMETER WorkingDirectory
        The file path to use as the working directory for the process. Any existing file
        at this path will be overwritten. This property cannot be specified at the same time
        as Credential when running the process as a local user.
#>

function Set-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess = $true)]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [String]
        $Path,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [AllowEmptyString()]
        [String]
        $Arguments,

        [Parameter()]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [System.Management.Automation.PSCredential]
        [System.Management.Automation.Credential()]
        $Credential,

        [Parameter()]
        [ValidateSet('Present', 'Absent')]
        [String]
        $Ensure = 'Present',

        [Parameter()]
        [String]
        $StandardOutputPath,

        [Parameter()]
        [String]
        $StandardErrorPath,

        [Parameter()]
        [String]
        $StandardInputPath,

        [Parameter()]
        [String]
        $WorkingDirectory
    )

    Write-Verbose -Message ($script:localizedData.SetTargetResourceStartMessage -f $Path)

    Assert-PsDscContextNotRunAsUser

    $Path = Expand-Path -Path $Path

    $getProcessCimInstanceArguments = @{
        Path = $Path
        Arguments = $Arguments
    }

    if ($PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Credential'))
    {
        $getProcessCimInstanceArguments['Credential'] = $Credential
    }

    $processCimInstance = @( Get-ProcessCimInstance @getProcessCimInstanceArguments )

    if ($Ensure -eq 'Absent')
    {
        $assertHashtableParams = @{
            Hashtable = $PSBoundParameters
            Key = @( 'StandardOutputPath',
                     'StandardErrorPath',
                     'StandardInputPath',
                     'WorkingDirectory' )
        }
        Assert-HashtableDoesNotContainKey @assertHashtableParams

        $whatIfShouldProcess = $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess($Path, $script:localizedData.StoppingProcessWhatif)
        if ($processCimInstance.Count -gt 0 -and $whatIfShouldProcess)
        {
            # If there are multiple process Ids, all will be included to be stopped
            $processIds = $processCimInstance.ProcessId

            # Redirecting error output to standard output while we try to stop the processes
            $stopProcessError = Stop-Process -Id $processIds -Force 2>&1

            if ($null -eq $stopProcessError)
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message ($script:localizedData.ProcessesStopped -f $Path, ($processIds -join ','))
            }
            else
            {
                $errorMessage = ($script:localizedData.ErrorStopping -f $Path,
                           ($processIds -join ','),
                           ($stopProcessError | Out-String))

                New-InvalidOperationException -Message $errorMessage
           }
           <#
               Before returning from Set-TargetResource we have to ensure a subsequent
               Test-TargetResource is going to work
           #>

           if (-not (Wait-ProcessCount -ProcessSettings $getProcessCimInstanceArguments -ProcessCount 0))
           {
                $message = $script:localizedData.ErrorStopping -f $Path, ($processIds -join ','),
                           $script:localizedData.FailureWaitingForProcessesToStop

                New-InvalidOperationException -Message $message
           }
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Verbose -Message ($script:localizedData.ProcessAlreadyStopped -f $Path)
        }
    }
    # Ensure = 'Present'
    else
    {
        $shouldBeRootedPathArguments = @( 'StandardInputPath',
                                          'WorkingDirectory',
                                          'StandardOutputPath',
                                          'StandardErrorPath' )

        foreach ($shouldBeRootedPathArgument in $shouldBeRootedPathArguments)
        {
            if (-not [String]::IsNullOrEmpty($PSBoundParameters[$shouldBeRootedPathArgument]))
            {
                $assertPathArgumentRootedParams = @{
                    PathArgumentName = $shouldBeRootedPathArgument
                    PathArgument = $PSBoundParameters[$shouldBeRootedPathArgument]
                }
                Assert-PathArgumentRooted @assertPathArgumentRootedParams
            }
        }

        $shouldExistPathArguments = @( 'StandardInputPath', 'WorkingDirectory' )

        foreach ($shouldExistPathArgument in $shouldExistPathArguments)
        {
            if (-not [String]::IsNullOrEmpty($PSBoundParameters[$shouldExistPathArgument]))
            {
                $assertPathArgumentValidParams = @{
                    PathArgumentName = $shouldExistPathArgument
                    PathArgument = $PSBoundParameters[$shouldExistPathArgument]
                }
                Assert-PathArgumentValid @assertPathArgumentValidParams
            }
        }

        if ($processCimInstance.Count -eq 0)
        {
            $startProcessArguments = @{
                FilePath = $Path
            }

            $startProcessOptionalArgumentMap = @{
                Credential = 'Credential'
                RedirectStandardOutput = 'StandardOutputPath'
                RedirectStandardError = 'StandardErrorPath'
                RedirectStandardInput = 'StandardInputPath'
                WorkingDirectory = 'WorkingDirectory'
            }

            foreach ($startProcessOptionalArgumentName in $startProcessOptionalArgumentMap.Keys)
            {
                $parameterKey = $startProcessOptionalArgumentMap[$startProcessOptionalArgumentName]
                $parameterValue = $PSBoundParameters[$parameterKey]

                if (-not [String]::IsNullOrEmpty($parameterValue))
                {
                    $startProcessArguments[$startProcessOptionalArgumentName] = $parameterValue
                }
            }

            if (-not [String]::IsNullOrEmpty($Arguments))
            {
                $startProcessArguments['ArgumentList'] = $Arguments
            }

            if ($PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess($Path, $script:localizedData.StartingProcessWhatif))
            {
                <#
                    Start-Process calls .net Process.Start()
                    If -Credential is present Process.Start() uses win32 api CreateProcessWithLogonW
                    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/0w4h05yb(v=vs.110).aspx
                    CreateProcessWithLogonW cannot be called as LocalSystem user.
                    Details http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms682431(v=vs.85).aspx
                    (section Remarks/Windows XP with SP2 and Windows Server 2003)
 
                    In this case we call another api.
                #>

                if (($PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Credential')) -and (Test-IsRunFromLocalSystemUser))
                {
                    # Throw an exception if any of the below parameters are included with Credential passed
                    foreach ($key in @('StandardOutputPath','StandardInputPath','WorkingDirectory'))
                    {
                        if ($PSBoundParameters.Keys -contains $key)
                        {
                            $newInvalidArgumentExceptionParams = @{
                                ArgumentName = $key
                                Message = $script:localizedData.ErrorParametersNotSupportedWithCredential
                            }
                            New-InvalidArgumentException @newInvalidArgumentExceptionParams
                        }
                    }
                    try
                    {
                        Start-ProcessAsLocalSystemUser -Path $Path -Arguments $Arguments -Credential $Credential
                    }
                    catch
                    {
                        throw (New-Object -TypeName 'System.Management.Automation.ErrorRecord' `
                                          -ArgumentList @( $_.Exception, 'Win32Exception', 'OperationStopped', $null ))
                    }
                }
                # Credential not passed in or running from a LocalSystem
                else
                {
                    try
                    {
                        Start-Process @startProcessArguments
                    }
                    catch [System.Exception]
                    {
                        $errorMessage = ($script:localizedData.ErrorStarting -f $Path, $_.Exception.Message)
                        
                        New-InvalidOperationException -Message $errorMessage
                    }
                }

                Write-Verbose -Message ($script:localizedData.ProcessesStarted -f $Path)

                # Before returning from Set-TargetResource we have to ensure a subsequent Test-TargetResource is going to work
                if (-not (Wait-ProcessCount -ProcessSettings $getProcessCimInstanceArguments -ProcessCount 1))
                {
                    $message = $script:localizedData.ErrorStarting -f $Path,
                               $script:localizedData.FailureWaitingForProcessesToStart

                    New-InvalidOperationException -Message $message
                }
            }
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Verbose -Message ($script:localizedData.ProcessAlreadyStarted -f $Path)
        }
    }

    Write-Verbose -Message ($script:localizedData.SetTargetResourceEndMessage -f $Path)
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Tests if the Windows process with the specified executable path and arguments is in
        the specified state.
 
    .PARAMETER Path
        The path to the process executable. If this is the file name of the executable
        (not the fully qualified path), the DSC resource will search the environment Path variable
        ($env:Path) to find the executable file. If the value of this property is a fully qualified
        path, DSC will use the given Path variable to find the file. If the path is not found it
        will throw an error. Relative paths are not allowed.
 
    .PARAMETER Arguments
        The arguments to pass to the process as a single string.
 
    .PARAMETER Credential
        The credential of the user account the process should be running under.
 
    .PARAMETER Ensure
        Specifies whether or not the process should exist.
        If the process should exist, set this property to Present.
        If the process should not exist, set this property to Absent.
        The default value is Present.
 
    .PARAMETER StandardOutputPath
        Not used in Test-TargetResource.
 
    .PARAMETER StandardErrorPath
        Not used in Test-TargetResource.
 
    .PARAMETER StandardInputPath
        Not used in Test-TargetResource.
 
    .PARAMETER WorkingDirectory
        Not used in Test-TargetResource.
#>

function Test-TargetResource
{
    [OutputType([Boolean])]
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [String]
        $Path,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [AllowEmptyString()]
        [String]
        $Arguments,

        [Parameter()]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [PSCredential]
        [System.Management.Automation.Credential()]
        $Credential,

        [Parameter()]
        [ValidateSet('Present', 'Absent')]
        [String]
        $Ensure = 'Present',

        [Parameter()]
        [String]
        $StandardOutputPath,

        [Parameter()]
        [String]
        $StandardErrorPath,

        [Parameter()]
        [String]
        $StandardInputPath,

        [Parameter()]
        [String]
        $WorkingDirectory
    )

    Write-Verbose -Message ($script:localizedData.TestTargetResourceStartMessage -f $Path)

    Assert-PsDscContextNotRunAsUser

    $Path = Expand-Path -Path $Path

    $getProcessCimInstanceArguments = @{
        Path = $Path
        Arguments = $Arguments
    }

    if ($PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Credential'))
    {
        $getProcessCimInstanceArguments['Credential'] = $Credential
    }

    $processCimInstances = @( Get-ProcessCimInstance @getProcessCimInstanceArguments )

    Write-Verbose -Message ($script:localizedData.TestTargetResourceEndMessage -f $Path)

    if ($Ensure -eq 'Absent')
    {
        return ($processCimInstances.Count -eq 0)
    }
    else
    {
        return ($processCimInstances.Count -gt 0)
    }
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Expands a relative leaf path into a full, rooted path. Throws an invalid argument exception
        if the path is not valid.
 
    .PARAMETER Path
        The relative leaf path to expand.
#>

function Expand-Path
{
    [OutputType([String])]
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [String]
        $Path
    )

    $Path = [Environment]::ExpandEnvironmentVariables($Path)

    # Check to see if the path is rooted. If so, return it as is.
    if ([IO.Path]::IsPathRooted($Path))
    {
        if (-not (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType 'Leaf'))
        {
            New-InvalidArgumentException -ArgumentName 'Path' -Message ($script:localizedData.FileNotFound -f $Path)
        }

        return $Path
    }

    # Check to see if the path to the file exists in the current location. If so, return the full rooted path.
    $rootedPath = [System.IO.Path]::GetFullPath($Path)
    if ([System.IO.File]::Exists($rootedPath))
    {
        return $rootedPath
    }
    
    # If the path is not found, throw an exception
    New-InvalidArgumentException -ArgumentName 'Path' -Message ($script:localizedData.FileNotFound -f $Path)
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Retrieves any process CIM instance objects that match the given path, arguments, and credential.
 
    .PARAMETER Path
        The executable path of the process to retrieve.
 
    .PARAMETER Arguments
        The arguments of the process to retrieve as a single string.
 
    .PARAMETER Credential
        The credential of the user account of the process to retrieve
 
    .PARAMETER UseGetCimInstanceThreshold
        If the number of processes returned by the Get-Process method is greater than or equal to
        this value, this function will retrieve all processes at the executable path. This will
        help the function execute faster. Otherwise, this function will retrieve each process
        CIM instance with the process IDs retrieved from Get-Process.
#>

function Get-ProcessCimInstance
{
    [OutputType([CimInstance[]])]
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [String]
        $Path,

        [Parameter()]
        [String]
        $Arguments,

        [Parameter()]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [System.Management.Automation.PSCredential]
        [System.Management.Automation.Credential()]
        $Credential,

        [Parameter()]
        [ValidateRange(0, [Int]::MaxValue)]
        [Int]
        $UseGetCimInstanceThreshold = 8
    )

    $processName = [IO.Path]::GetFileNameWithoutExtension($Path)

    $getProcessResult = @( Get-Process -Name $processName -ErrorAction 'SilentlyContinue' )

    $processCimInstances = @()

    if ($getProcessResult.Count -ge $UseGetCimInstanceThreshold)
    {
        $escapedPathForWqlFilter = ConvertTo-EscapedStringForWqlFilter -FilterString $Path
        $wqlFilter = "ExecutablePath = '$escapedPathForWqlFilter'"

        $processCimInstances = Get-CimInstance -ClassName 'Win32_Process' -Filter $wqlFilter
    }
    else
    {
        foreach ($process in $getProcessResult)
        {
            if ($process.Path -ieq $Path)
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message ($script:localizedData.VerboseInProcessHandle -f $process.Id)
                $getCimInstanceParams = @{
                    ClassName = 'Win32_Process'
                    Filter = "ProcessId = $($process.Id)"
                    ErrorAction = 'SilentlyContinue'
                }
                $processCimInstances += Get-CimInstance @getCimInstanceParams
            }
        }
    }

    if ($PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Credential'))
    {
        $splitCredentialResult = Split-Credential -Credential $Credential
        $domain =  $splitCredentialResult.Domain
        $userName = $splitCredentialResult.UserName
        $processesWithCredential = @()

        foreach ($process in $processCimInstances)
        {
            if ((Get-ProcessOwner -Process $process) -eq "$domain\$userName")
            {
                $processesWithCredential += $process
            }
        }
        $processCimInstances = $processesWithCredential
    }

    if ($null -eq $Arguments)
    {
        $Arguments = [String]::Empty
    }

    $processesWithMatchingArguments = @()

    foreach ($process in $processCimInstances)
    {
        if ((Get-ArgumentsFromCommandLineInput -CommandLineInput $process.CommandLine) -eq $Arguments)
        {
            $processesWithMatchingArguments += $process
        }
    }

    return $processesWithMatchingArguments
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Converts a string to an escaped string to be used in a WQL filter such as the one passed in
        the Filter parameter of Get-WmiObject.
 
    .PARAMETER FilterString
        The string to convert.
#>

function ConvertTo-EscapedStringForWqlFilter
{
    [OutputType([String])]
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [String]
        $FilterString
    )

    return $FilterString.Replace("\","\\").Replace('"','\"').Replace("'","\'")
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Retrieves the owner of a Process.
 
    .PARAMETER Process
        The Process to retrieve the owner of.
 
    .NOTES
        If the process was killed by the time this function is called, this function will throw a
        WMIMethodException with the message "Not found".
#>

function Get-ProcessOwner
{
    [OutputType([String])]
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNull()]
        [Object]
        $Process
    )

    $owner = Get-ProcessOwnerCimInstance -Process $Process -ErrorAction 'SilentlyContinue'

    if ($null -ne $owner)
    {
        if ($null -ne $owner.Domain)
        {
            return ($owner.Domain + '\' + $owner.User)
        }
        else
        {
            # return the default domain
            return ($env:computerName + '\' + $owner.User)
        }
    }

    return ''
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Wrapper function to retrieve the CIM instance of the owner of a process
 
    .PARAMETER Process
        The process to retrieve the CIM instance of the owner of.
 
    .NOTES
        If the process was killed by the time this function is called, this function will throw a
        WMIMethodException with the message "Not found".
#>

function Get-ProcessOwnerCimInstance
{
    [OutputType([CimInstance])]
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNull()]
        [Object]
        $Process
    )

    return Invoke-CimMethod -InputObject $Process -MethodName 'GetOwner' -ErrorAction 'SilentlyContinue'
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Retrieves the 'arguments' part of command line input.
 
    .PARAMETER CommandLineInput
        The command line input to retrieve the arguments from.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        Get-ArgumentsFromCommandLineInput -CommandLineInput 'C:\temp\a.exe X Y Z'
        Returns 'X Y Z'.
#>

function Get-ArgumentsFromCommandLineInput
{
    [OutputType([String])]
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter()]
        [String]
        $CommandLineInput
    )

    if ([String]::IsNullOrWhitespace($CommandLineInput))
    {
        return [String]::Empty
    }

    $CommandLineInput = $CommandLineInput.Trim()

    if ($CommandLineInput.StartsWith('"'))
    {
        $endOfCommandChar = [Char]'"'
    }
    else
    {
        $endOfCommandChar = [Char]' '
    }

    $endofCommandIndex = $CommandLineInput.IndexOf($endOfCommandChar, 1)

    if ($endofCommandIndex -eq -1)
    {
        return [String]::Empty
    }

    return $CommandLineInput.Substring($endofCommandIndex + 1).Trim()
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Throws an invalid argument exception if the given hashtable contains the given key(s).
 
    .PARAMETER Hashtable
        The hashtable to check the keys of.
 
    .PARAMETER Key
        The key(s) that should not be in the hashtable.
#>

function Assert-HashtableDoesNotContainKey
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [Hashtable]
        $Hashtable,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [String[]]
        $Key
    )

    foreach ($keyName in $Key)
    {
        if ($Hashtable.ContainsKey($keyName))
        {
            New-InvalidArgumentException -ArgumentName $keyName `
                                         -Message ($script:localizedData.ParameterShouldNotBeSpecified -f $keyName)
        }
    }
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Waits for the given amount of time for the given number of processes with the given settings
        to be running. If not all processes are running by 'WaitTime', the function returns
        false, otherwise it returns true.
 
    .PARAMETER ProcessSettings
        The settings for the running process(es) that we're getting the count of.
 
    .PARAMETER ProcessCount
        The number of processes running to wait for.
 
    .PARAMETER WaitTime
        The amount of milliseconds to wait for all processes to be running.
        Default is 2000.
#>

function Wait-ProcessCount
{
    [OutputType([Boolean])]
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [Hashtable]
        $ProcessSettings,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateRange(0, [Int]::MaxValue)]
        [Int]
        $ProcessCount,

        [Parameter()]
        [Int]
        $WaitTime = 200000
    )

    $startTime = [DateTime]::Now

    do
    {
        $actualProcessCount = @( Get-ProcessCimInstance @ProcessSettings ).Count
    } while ($actualProcessCount -ne $ProcessCount -and ([DateTime]::Now - $startTime).TotalMilliseconds -lt $WaitTime)

    return $actualProcessCount -eq $ProcessCount
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Throws an error if the given path argument is not rooted.
 
    .PARAMETER PathArgumentName
        The name of the path argument that should be rooted.
 
    .PARAMETER PathArgument
        The path arguments that should be rooted.
#>

function Assert-PathArgumentRooted
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [String]
        $PathArgumentName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [String]
        $PathArgument
    )

    if (-not ([IO.Path]::IsPathRooted($PathArgument)))
    {
        $message = $script:localizedData.PathShouldBeAbsolute -f $PathArgumentName, $PathArgument

        New-InvalidArgumentException -ArgumentName 'Path' `
                                     -Message $message
    }
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Throws an error if the given path argument does not exist.
 
    .PARAMETER PathArgumentName
        The name of the path argument that should exist.
 
    .PARAMETER PathArgument
        The path argument that should exist.
#>

function Assert-PathArgumentValid
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [String]
        $PathArgumentName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [String]
        $PathArgument
    )

    if (-not (Test-Path -Path $PathArgument))
    {
        $message = $script:localizedData.PathShouldExist -f $PathArgument, $PathArgumentName
                   
        New-InvalidArgumentException -ArgumentName 'Path' `
                                     -Message $message
    }
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Tests if the current user is from the local system.
#>

function Test-IsRunFromLocalSystemUser
{
    [OutputType([Boolean])]
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param ()

    $identity = [Security.Principal.WindowsIdentity]::GetCurrent()
    $principal = New-Object -TypeName Security.Principal.WindowsPrincipal -ArgumentList $identity

    return $principal.Identity.IsSystem
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Starts the process with the given credential when the user is a local system user.
 
    .PARAMETER Path
        The path to the process executable.
 
    .PARAMETER Arguments
        Indicates a string of arguments to pass to the process as-is.
 
    .PARAMETER Credential
        Indicates the credential for starting the process.
#>

function Start-ProcessAsLocalSystemUser
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param 
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [String]
        $Path,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [AllowEmptyString()]
        [String]
        $Arguments,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [System.Management.Automation.PSCredential]
        [System.Management.Automation.Credential()]
        $Credential
    )

    $splitCredentialResult = Split-Credential -Credential $Credential

    <#
        Internally we use win32 api LogonUser() with
        dwLogonType == LOGON32_LOGON_NETWORK_CLEARTEXT.
 
        It grants the process ability for second-hop.
    #>

    Import-DscNativeMethods

    [PSDesiredStateConfiguration.NativeMethods]::CreateProcessAsUser( "$Path $Arguments", $splitCredentialResult.Domain,
                                                                      $splitCredentialResult.UserName, $Credential.Password,
                                                                      $false, [Ref]$null )
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Splits a credential into a username and domain without calling GetNetworkCredential.
        Calls to GetNetworkCredential expose the password as plain text in memory.
 
    .PARAMETER Credential
        The credential to pull the username and domain out of.
 
    .NOTES
        Supported formats: DOMAIN\username, username@domain
#>

function Split-Credential
{
    [OutputType([Hashtable])]
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [System.Management.Automation.PSCredential]
        [System.Management.Automation.Credential()]
        $Credential
    )

    $wrongFormat = $false

    if ($Credential.UserName.Contains('\'))
    {
        $credentialSegments = $Credential.UserName.Split('\')

        if ($credentialSegments.Length -gt 2)
        {
            # i.e. domain\user\foo
            $wrongFormat = $true
        }
        else
        {
            $domain = $credentialSegments[0]
            $userName = $credentialSegments[1]
        }
    }
    elseif ($Credential.UserName.Contains('@'))
    {
        $credentialSegments = $Credential.UserName.Split('@')

        if ($credentialSegments.Length -gt 2)
        {
            # i.e. user@domain@foo
            $wrongFormat = $true
        }
        else
        {
            $UserName = $credentialSegments[0]
            $Domain = $credentialSegments[1]
        }
    }
    else
    {
        # support for default domain (localhost)
        $domain = $env:computerName
        $userName = $Credential.UserName
    }

    if ($wrongFormat)
    {
        $message = $script:localizedData.ErrorInvalidUserName -f $Credential.UserName

        New-InvalidArgumentException -ArgumentName 'Credential' -Message $message
    }

    return @{
        Domain = $domain
        UserName = $userName
    }
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Asserts that the PsDscContext is not run as user.
        Throws an invalid argument exception if DSC is running as a specific user
        (the PsDscRunAsCredential parameter was provided to DSC).
 
    .NOTES
        Strict mode is turned off for this function since it does not recognize $PsDscContext
#>

function Assert-PsDscContextNotRunAsUser
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param 
    ()

    Set-StrictMode -Off

    if ($null -ne $PsDscContext.RunAsUser)
    {
        $newInvalidArgumentExceptionParams = @{
            ArgumentName = 'PsDscRunAsCredential'
            Message = ($script:localizedData.ErrorRunAsCredentialParameterNotSupported -f $PsDscContext.RunAsUser)
        }
        New-InvalidArgumentException @newInvalidArgumentExceptionParams
    }
}

<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Imports the DSC native methods so that a process can be started with a credential
        for a user from the local system.
        Currently Start-Process, which is the command used otherwise, cannot do this.
#>

function Import-DscNativeMethods
{
$dscNativeMethodsSource = @"
   
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Text;
using System.Security;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Security.Principal;
#if !CORECLR
using System.ComponentModel;
#endif
using System.IO;
   
namespace PSDesiredStateConfiguration
{
#if !CORECLR
    [SuppressUnmanagedCodeSecurity]
#endif
    public static class NativeMethods
    {
        //The following structs and enums are used by the various Win32 API's that are used in the code below
   
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        public struct STARTUPINFO
        {
            public Int32 cb;
            public string lpReserved;
            public string lpDesktop;
            public string lpTitle;
            public Int32 dwX;
            public Int32 dwY;
            public Int32 dwXSize;
            public Int32 dwXCountChars;
            public Int32 dwYCountChars;
            public Int32 dwFillAttribute;
            public Int32 dwFlags;
            public Int16 wShowWindow;
            public Int16 cbReserved2;
            public IntPtr lpReserved2;
            public IntPtr hStdInput;
            public IntPtr hStdOutput;
            public IntPtr hStdError;
        }
   
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        public struct PROCESS_INFORMATION
        {
            public IntPtr hProcess;
            public IntPtr hThread;
            public Int32 dwProcessID;
            public Int32 dwThreadID;
        }
   
        [Flags]
        public enum LogonType
        {
            LOGON32_LOGON_INTERACTIVE = 2,
            LOGON32_LOGON_NETWORK = 3,
            LOGON32_LOGON_BATCH = 4,
            LOGON32_LOGON_SERVICE = 5,
            LOGON32_LOGON_UNLOCK = 7,
            LOGON32_LOGON_NETWORK_CLEARTEXT = 8,
            LOGON32_LOGON_NEW_CREDENTIALS = 9
        }
   
        [Flags]
        public enum LogonProvider
        {
            LOGON32_PROVIDER_DEFAULT = 0,
            LOGON32_PROVIDER_WINNT35,
            LOGON32_PROVIDER_WINNT40,
            LOGON32_PROVIDER_WINNT50
        }
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        public struct SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES
        {
            public Int32 Length;
            public IntPtr lpSecurityDescriptor;
            public bool bInheritHandle;
        }
   
        public enum SECURITY_IMPERSONATION_LEVEL
        {
            SecurityAnonymous,
            SecurityIdentification,
            SecurityImpersonation,
            SecurityDelegation
        }
   
        public enum TOKEN_TYPE
        {
            TokenPrimary = 1,
            TokenImpersonation
        }
   
        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, Pack = 1)]
        internal struct TokPriv1Luid
        {
            public int Count;
            public long Luid;
            public int Attr;
        }
   
        public const int GENERIC_ALL_ACCESS = 0x10000000;
        public const int CREATE_NO_WINDOW = 0x08000000;
        internal const int SE_PRIVILEGE_ENABLED = 0x00000002;
        internal const int TOKEN_QUERY = 0x00000008;
        internal const int TOKEN_ADJUST_PRIVILEGES = 0x00000020;
        internal const string SE_INCRASE_QUOTA = "SeIncreaseQuotaPrivilege";
   
#if CORECLR
        [DllImport("api-ms-win-core-handle-l1-1-0.dll",
#else
        [DllImport("kernel32.dll",
#endif
              EntryPoint = "CloseHandle", SetLastError = true,
              CharSet = CharSet.Auto, CallingConvention = CallingConvention.StdCall)]
        public static extern bool CloseHandle(IntPtr handle);
   
#if CORECLR
        [DllImport("api-ms-win-core-processthreads-l1-1-2.dll",
#else
        [DllImport("advapi32.dll",
#endif
              EntryPoint = "CreateProcessAsUser", SetLastError = true,
              CharSet = CharSet.Ansi, CallingConvention = CallingConvention.StdCall)]
        public static extern bool CreateProcessAsUser(
            IntPtr hToken,
            string lpApplicationName,
            string lpCommandLine,
            ref SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpProcessAttributes,
            ref SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpThreadAttributes,
            bool bInheritHandle,
            Int32 dwCreationFlags,
            IntPtr lpEnvrionment,
            string lpCurrentDirectory,
            ref STARTUPINFO lpStartupInfo,
            ref PROCESS_INFORMATION lpProcessInformation
            );
   
#if CORECLR
        [DllImport("api-ms-win-security-base-l1-1-0.dll", EntryPoint = "DuplicateTokenEx")]
#else
        [DllImport("advapi32.dll", EntryPoint = "DuplicateTokenEx")]
#endif
        public static extern bool DuplicateTokenEx(
            IntPtr hExistingToken,
            Int32 dwDesiredAccess,
            ref SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpThreadAttributes,
            Int32 ImpersonationLevel,
            Int32 dwTokenType,
            ref IntPtr phNewToken
            );
   
#if CORECLR
        [DllImport("api-ms-win-security-logon-l1-1-1.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true)]
#else
        [DllImport("advapi32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true)]
#endif
        public static extern Boolean LogonUser(
            String lpszUserName,
            String lpszDomain,
            IntPtr lpszPassword,
            LogonType dwLogonType,
            LogonProvider dwLogonProvider,
            out IntPtr phToken
            );
   
#if CORECLR
        [DllImport("api-ms-win-security-base-l1-1-0.dll", ExactSpelling = true, SetLastError = true)]
#else
        [DllImport("advapi32.dll", ExactSpelling = true, SetLastError = true)]
#endif
        internal static extern bool AdjustTokenPrivileges(
            IntPtr htok,
            bool disall,
            ref TokPriv1Luid newst,
            int len,
            IntPtr prev,
            IntPtr relen
            );
   
#if CORECLR
        [DllImport("api-ms-win-downlevel-kernel32-l1-1-0.dll", ExactSpelling = true)]
#else
        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", ExactSpelling = true)]
#endif
        internal static extern IntPtr GetCurrentProcess();
   
#if CORECLR
        [DllImport("api-ms-win-downlevel-advapi32-l1-1-1.dll", ExactSpelling = true, SetLastError = true)]
#else
        [DllImport("advapi32.dll", ExactSpelling = true, SetLastError = true)]
#endif
        internal static extern bool OpenProcessToken(
            IntPtr h,
            int acc,
            ref IntPtr phtok
            );
   
#if CORECLR
        [DllImport("api-ms-win-downlevel-kernel32-l1-1-0.dll", ExactSpelling = true)]
#else
        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", ExactSpelling = true)]
#endif
        internal static extern int WaitForSingleObject(
            IntPtr h,
            int milliseconds
            );
   
#if CORECLR
        [DllImport("api-ms-win-downlevel-kernel32-l1-1-0.dll", ExactSpelling = true)]
#else
        [DllImport("kernel32.dll", ExactSpelling = true)]
#endif
        internal static extern bool GetExitCodeProcess(
            IntPtr h,
            out int exitcode
            );
   
#if CORECLR
        [DllImport("api-ms-win-downlevel-advapi32-l4-1-0.dll", SetLastError = true)]
#else
        [DllImport("advapi32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
#endif
        internal static extern bool LookupPrivilegeValue(
            string host,
            string name,
            ref long pluid
            );
   
        internal static void ThrowException(
            string message
            )
        {
#if CORECLR
            throw new Exception(message);
#else
            throw new Win32Exception(message);
#endif
        }
   
        public static void CreateProcessAsUser(string strCommand, string strDomain, string strName, SecureString secureStringPassword, bool waitForExit, ref int ExitCode)
        {
            var hToken = IntPtr.Zero;
            var hDupedToken = IntPtr.Zero;
            TokPriv1Luid tp;
            var pi = new PROCESS_INFORMATION();
            var sa = new SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES();
            sa.Length = Marshal.SizeOf(sa);
            Boolean bResult = false;
            try
            {
                IntPtr unmanagedPassword = IntPtr.Zero;
                try
                {
#if CORECLR
                    unmanagedPassword = SecureStringMarshal.SecureStringToCoTaskMemUnicode(secureStringPassword);
#else
                    unmanagedPassword = Marshal.SecureStringToGlobalAllocUnicode(secureStringPassword);
#endif
                    bResult = LogonUser(
                        strName,
                        strDomain,
                        unmanagedPassword,
                        LogonType.LOGON32_LOGON_NETWORK_CLEARTEXT,
                        LogonProvider.LOGON32_PROVIDER_DEFAULT,
                        out hToken
                        );
                }
                finally
                {
                    Marshal.ZeroFreeGlobalAllocUnicode(unmanagedPassword);
                }
                if (!bResult)
                {
                    ThrowException("$($script:localizedData.UserCouldNotBeLoggedError)" + Marshal.GetLastWin32Error().ToString());
                }
                IntPtr hproc = GetCurrentProcess();
                IntPtr htok = IntPtr.Zero;
                bResult = OpenProcessToken(
                        hproc,
                        TOKEN_ADJUST_PRIVILEGES | TOKEN_QUERY,
                        ref htok
                    );
                if (!bResult)
                {
                    ThrowException("$($script:localizedData.OpenProcessTokenError)" + Marshal.GetLastWin32Error().ToString());
                }
                tp.Count = 1;
                tp.Luid = 0;
                tp.Attr = SE_PRIVILEGE_ENABLED;
                bResult = LookupPrivilegeValue(
                    null,
                    SE_INCRASE_QUOTA,
                    ref tp.Luid
                    );
                if (!bResult)
                {
                    ThrowException("$($script:localizedData.PrivilegeLookingUpError)" + Marshal.GetLastWin32Error().ToString());
                }
                bResult = AdjustTokenPrivileges(
                    htok,
                    false,
                    ref tp,
                    0,
                    IntPtr.Zero,
                    IntPtr.Zero
                    );
                if (!bResult)
                {
                    ThrowException("$($script:localizedData.TokenElevationError)" + Marshal.GetLastWin32Error().ToString());
                }
   
                bResult = DuplicateTokenEx(
                    hToken,
                    GENERIC_ALL_ACCESS,
                    ref sa,
                    (int)SECURITY_IMPERSONATION_LEVEL.SecurityIdentification,
                    (int)TOKEN_TYPE.TokenPrimary,
                    ref hDupedToken
                    );
                if (!bResult)
                {
                    ThrowException("$($script:localizedData.DuplicateTokenError)" + Marshal.GetLastWin32Error().ToString());
                }
                var si = new STARTUPINFO();
                si.cb = Marshal.SizeOf(si);
                si.lpDesktop = "";
                bResult = CreateProcessAsUser(
                    hDupedToken,
                    null,
                    strCommand,
                    ref sa,
                    ref sa,
                    false,
                    0,
                    IntPtr.Zero,
                    null,
                    ref si,
                    ref pi
                    );
                if (!bResult)
                {
                    ThrowException("$($script:localizedData.CouldNotCreateProcessError)" + Marshal.GetLastWin32Error().ToString());
                }
                if (waitForExit) {
                    int status = WaitForSingleObject(pi.hProcess, -1);
                    if(status == -1)
                    {
                        ThrowException("$($script:localizedData.WaitFailedError)" + Marshal.GetLastWin32Error().ToString());
                    }
   
                    bResult = GetExitCodeProcess(pi.hProcess, out ExitCode);
                    if(!bResult)
                    {
                        ThrowException("$($script:localizedData.RetriveStatusError)" + Marshal.GetLastWin32Error().ToString());
                    }
                }
            }
            finally
            {
                if (pi.hThread != IntPtr.Zero)
                {
                    CloseHandle(pi.hThread);
                }
                if (pi.hProcess != IntPtr.Zero)
                {
                    CloseHandle(pi.hProcess);
                }
                if (hDupedToken != IntPtr.Zero)
                {
                    CloseHandle(hDupedToken);
                }
            }
        }
    }
}
   
"@

    # if not on Nano:
    Add-Type -TypeDefinition $dscNativeMethodsSource -ReferencedAssemblies 'System.ServiceProcess'
}