functions/import-d365odataentity.ps1

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<#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Import a Data Entity into Dynamics 365 Finance & Operations
         
    .DESCRIPTION
        Imports a Data Entity, defined as a json payload, using the OData endpoint of the Dynamics 365 Finance & Operations platform
         
    .PARAMETER EntityName
        Name of the Data Entity you want to work against
         
        The parameter is Case Sensitive, because the OData endpoint in D365FO is Case Sensitive
         
        Remember that most Data Entities in a D365FO environment is named by its singular name, but most be retrieve using the plural name
         
        E.g. The version 3 of the customers Data Entity is named CustomerV3, but can only be retrieving using CustomersV3
         
        Look at the Get-D365ODataPublicEntity cmdlet to help you obtain the correct name
         
    .PARAMETER Payload
        The entire string contain the json object that you want to import into the D365FO environment
         
        Remember that json is text based and can use either single quotes (') or double quotes (") as the text qualifier, so you might need to escape the different quotes in your payload before passing it in
         
    .PARAMETER PayloadCharset
        The charset / encoding that you want the cmdlet to use while importing the odata entity
         
        The default value is: "UTF8"
         
        The charset has to be a valid http charset like: ASCII, ANSI, ISO-8859-1, UTF-8
         
    .PARAMETER CrossCompany
        Instruct the cmdlet / function to ensure the request against the OData endpoint will work across all companies
         
    .PARAMETER RetryTimeout
        The retry timeout, before the cmdlet should quit retrying based on the 429 status code
         
        Needs to be provided in the timspan notation:
        "hh:mm:ss"
         
        hh is the number of hours, numerical notation only
        mm is the number of minutes
        ss is the numbers of seconds
         
        Each section of the timeout has to valid, e.g.
        hh can maximum be 23
        mm can maximum be 59
        ss can maximum be 59
         
        Not setting this parameter will result in the cmdlet to try for ever to handle the 429 push back from the endpoint
         
    .PARAMETER ThrottleSeed
        Instruct the cmdlet to invoke a thread sleep between 1 and ThrottleSeed value
         
        This is to help to mitigate the 429 retry throttling on the OData / Custom Service endpoints
         
        It makes most sense if you are running things a outer loop, where you will hit the OData / Custom Service endpoints with a burst of calls in a short time
         
    .PARAMETER Tenant
        Azure Active Directory (AAD) tenant id (Guid) that the D365FO environment is connected to, that you want to access through OData
         
    .PARAMETER Url
        URL / URI for the D365FO environment you want to access through OData
         
        If you are working against a D365FO instance, it will be the URL / URI for the instance itself
         
        If you are working against a D365 Talent / HR instance, this will have to be "http://hr.talent.dynamics.com"
         
    .PARAMETER SystemUrl
        URL / URI for the D365FO instance where the OData endpoint is available
         
        If you are working against a D365FO instance, it will be the URL / URI for the instance itself, which is the same as the Url parameter value
         
        If you are working against a D365 Talent / HR instance, this will to be full instance URL / URI like "https://aos-rts-sf-b1b468164ee-prod-northeurope.hr.talent.dynamics.com/namespaces/0ab49d18-6325-4597-97b3-c7f2321aa80c"
         
    .PARAMETER ClientId
        The ClientId obtained from the Azure Portal when you created a Registered Application
         
    .PARAMETER ClientSecret
        The ClientSecret obtained from the Azure Portal when you created a Registered Application
         
    .PARAMETER Token
        Pass a bearer token string that you want to use for while working against the endpoint
         
        This can improve performance if you are iterating over a large collection/array
         
    .PARAMETER EnableException
        This parameters disables user-friendly warnings and enables the throwing of exceptions
        This is less user friendly, but allows catching exceptions in calling scripts
         
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> Import-D365ODataEntity -EntityName "ExchangeRates" -Payload '{"@odata.type" :"Microsoft.Dynamics.DataEntities.ExchangeRate", "RateTypeName": "TEST", "FromCurrency": "DKK", "ToCurrency": "EUR", "StartDate": "2019-01-03T00:00:00Z", "Rate": 745.10, "ConversionFactor": "Hundred", "RateTypeDescription": "TEST"}'
         
        This will import a Data Entity into Dynamics 365 Finance & Operations using the OData endpoint.
        The EntityName used for the import is ExchangeRates.
        The Payload is a valid json string, containing all the needed properties.
         
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $Payload = '{"@odata.type" :"Microsoft.Dynamics.DataEntities.ExchangeRate", "RateTypeName": "TEST", "FromCurrency": "DKK", "ToCurrency": "EUR", "StartDate": "2019-01-03T00:00:00Z", "Rate": 745.10, "ConversionFactor": "Hundred", "RateTypeDescription": "TEST"}'
        PS C:\> Import-D365ODataEntity -EntityName "ExchangeRates" -Payload $Payload
         
        This will import a Data Entity into Dynamics 365 Finance & Operations using the OData endpoint.
        First the desired json data is put into the $Payload variable.
        The EntityName used for the import is ExchangeRates.
        The $Payload variable is passed to the cmdlet.
         
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $token = Get-D365ODataToken
        PS C:\> Import-D365ODataEntity -EntityName "ExchangeRates" -Payload '{"@odata.type" :"Microsoft.Dynamics.DataEntities.ExchangeRate", "RateTypeName": "TEST", "FromCurrency": "DKK", "ToCurrency": "EUR", "StartDate": "2019-01-03T00:00:00Z", "Rate": 745.10, "ConversionFactor": "Hundred", "RateTypeDescription": "TEST"}' -Token $token
         
        This will import a Data Entity into Dynamics 365 Finance & Operations using the OData endpoint.
        It will get a fresh token, saved it into the token variable and pass it to the cmdlet.
        The EntityName used for the import is ExchangeRates.
        The Payload is a valid json string, containing all the needed properties.
         
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> Import-D365ODataEntity -EntityName "ExchangeRates" -Payload '{"@odata.type" :"Microsoft.Dynamics.DataEntities.ExchangeRate", "RateTypeName": "TEST", "FromCurrency": "DKK", "ToCurrency": "EUR", "StartDate": "2019-01-03T00:00:00Z", "Rate": 745.10, "ConversionFactor": "Hundred", "RateTypeDescription": "TEST"}' -RetryTimeout "00:01:00"
         
        This will import a Data Entity into Dynamics 365 Finance & Operations using the OData endpoint, and try for 1 minute to handle 429.
        The EntityName used for the import is ExchangeRates.
        The Payload is a valid json string, containing all the needed properties.
        It will only try to handle 429 retries for 1 minute, before failing.
         
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> Import-D365ODataEntity -EntityName "ExchangeRates" -Payload '{"@odata.type" :"Microsoft.Dynamics.DataEntities.ExchangeRate", "RateTypeName": "TEST", "FromCurrency": "DKK", "ToCurrency": "EUR", "StartDate": "2019-01-03T00:00:00Z", "Rate": 745.10, "ConversionFactor": "Hundred", "RateTypeDescription": "TEST"}' -ThrottleSeed 2
         
        This will import a Data Entity into Dynamics 365 Finance & Operations using the OData endpoint, and sleep/pause between 1 and 2 seconds.
        The EntityName used for the import is ExchangeRates.
        The Payload is a valid json string, containing all the needed properties.
        It will use the ThrottleSeed 2 to sleep/pause the execution, to mitigate the 429 pushback from the endpoint.
         
    .NOTES
        Tags: OData, Data, Entity, Import, Upload
         
        Author: Mötz Jensen (@Splaxi)
#>


function Import-D365ODataEntity {
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string] $EntityName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [Alias('Json')]
        [string] $Payload,

        [string] $PayloadCharset = "UTF-8",

        [switch] $CrossCompany,

        [Timespan] $RetryTimeout = "00:00:00",
        
        [int] $ThrottleSeed,

        [Alias('$AadGuid')]
        [string] $Tenant = $Script:ODataTenant,

        [Alias('Uri')]
        [string] $Url = $Script:ODataUrl,

        [string] $SystemUrl = $Script:ODataSystemUrl,

        [string] $ClientId = $Script:ODataClientId,

        [string] $ClientSecret = $Script:ODataClientSecret,

        [string] $Token,
        
        [switch] $EnableException
    )

    begin {
        if ([System.String]::IsNullOrEmpty($SystemUrl)) {
            Write-PSFMessage -Level Verbose -Message "The SystemUrl parameter was empty, using the Url parameter as the OData endpoint base address." -Target $SystemUrl
            $SystemUrl = $Url
        }
        
        if ([System.String]::IsNullOrEmpty($Url) -or [System.String]::IsNullOrEmpty($SystemUrl)) {
            $messageString = "It seems that you didn't supply a valid value for the Url parameter. You need specify the Url parameter or add a configuration with the <c='em'>Add-D365ODataConfig</c> cmdlet."
            Write-PSFMessage -Level Host -Message $messageString -Exception $PSItem.Exception -Target $entityName
            Stop-PSFFunction -Message "Stopping because of errors." -Exception $([System.Exception]::new($($messageString -replace '<[^>]+>', ''))) -ErrorRecord $_
            return
        }
        
        if ($Url.Substring($Url.Length - 1) -eq "/") {
            Write-PSFMessage -Level Verbose -Message "The Url parameter had a tailing slash, which shouldn't be there. Removing the tailling slash." -Target $Url
            $Url = $Url.Substring(0, $Url.Length - 1)
        }
    
        if ($SystemUrl.Substring($SystemUrl.Length - 1) -eq "/") {
            Write-PSFMessage -Level Verbose -Message "The SystemUrl parameter had a tailing slash, which shouldn't be there. Removing the tailling slash." -Target $Url
            $SystemUrl = $SystemUrl.Substring(0, $SystemUrl.Length - 1)
        }

        if (-not $Token) {
            $bearerParms = @{
                Url          = $Url
                ClientId     = $ClientId
                ClientSecret = $ClientSecret
                Tenant       = $Tenant
            }

            $bearer = New-BearerToken @bearerParms
        }
        else {
            $bearer = $Token
        }
        
        $headerParms = @{
            URL         = $Url
            BearerToken = $bearer
        }

        $headers = New-AuthorizationHeaderBearerToken @headerParms
        
        $PayloadCharset = $PayloadCharset.ToLower()
        if ($PayloadCharset -like "utf*" -and $PayloadCharset -notlike "utf-*") {
            $PayloadCharset = $PayloadCharset -replace "utf", "utf-"
        }
    }

    process {
        if (Test-PSFFunctionInterrupt) { return }

        Invoke-TimeSignal -Start

        Write-PSFMessage -Level Verbose -Message "Building request for the OData endpoint for entity named: $EntityName." -Target $EntityName
        
        [System.UriBuilder] $odataEndpoint = $SystemUrl
        
        if ($odataEndpoint.Path -eq "/") {
            $odataEndpoint.Path = "data/$EntityName"
        }
        else {
            $odataEndpoint.Path += "/data/$EntityName"
        }

        if ($CrossCompany) {
            $odataEndpoint.Query = "cross-company=true"
        }

        try {
            Write-PSFMessage -Level Verbose -Message "Executing http request against the OData endpoint." -Target $($odataEndpoint.Uri.AbsoluteUri)
            Invoke-RequestHandler -Method POST -Uri $odataEndpoint.Uri.AbsoluteUri -Headers $headers -ContentType "application/json;charset=$PayloadCharset" -Payload $Payload -RetryTimeout $RetryTimeout
        
            if (Test-PSFFunctionInterrupt) { return }

        }
        catch {
            $messageString = "Something went wrong while importing data through the OData endpoint for the entity: $EntityName"
            Write-PSFMessage -Level Host -Message $messageString -Exception $PSItem.Exception -Target $EntityName
            Stop-PSFFunction -Message "Stopping because of errors." -Exception $([System.Exception]::new($($messageString -replace '<[^>]+>', ''))) -ErrorRecord $_
            return
        }

        if ($ThrottleSeed) {
            Start-Sleep -Seconds $(Get-Random -Minimum 1 -Maximum $ThrottleSeed)
        }
        
        Invoke-TimeSignal -End
    }
}