functions/Connect-DbaInstance.ps1

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function Connect-DbaInstance {
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Creates a robust SMO SQL Server object.
 
    .DESCRIPTION
        This command is robust because it initializes properties that do not cause enumeration by default. It also supports both Windows and SQL Server authentication methods, and detects which to use based upon the provided credentials.
 
        By default, this command also sets the connection's ApplicationName property to "dbatools PowerShell module - dbatools.io - custom connection". If you're doing anything that requires profiling, you can look for this client name.
 
        Alternatively, you can pass in whichever client name you'd like using the -ClientName parameter. There are a ton of other parameters for you to explore as well.
             
        See https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.data.sqlclient.sqlconnection.connectionstring.aspx
        and https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.data.sqlclient.sqlconnectionstringbuilder.aspx,
        and https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.data.sqlclient.sqlconnection.aspx
 
        To execute SQL commands, you can use $server.ConnectionContext.ExecuteReader($sql) or $server.Databases['master'].ExecuteNonQuery($sql)
 
    .PARAMETER SqlInstance
        SQL Server name or SMO object representing the SQL Server to connect to. This can be a collection and receive pipeline input to allow the function to be executed against multiple SQL Server instances.
 
    .PARAMETER Credential
        Credential object used to connect to the SQL Server Instance as a different user. This can be a Windows or SQL Server account. Windows users are determined by the existence of a backslash, so if you are intending to use an alternative Windows connection instead of a SQL login, ensure it contains a backslash.
 
    .PARAMETER Database
        The database(s) to process. This list is auto-populated from the server.
 
    .PARAMETER AccessToken    
        Gets or sets the access token for the connection.
         
    .PARAMETER AppendConnectionString    
        Appends to the current connection string. Note that you cannot pass authentication information using this method. Use -SqlInstance and optionally -SqlCredential to set authentication information.
 
    .PARAMETER ApplicationIntent    
        Declares the application workload type when connecting to a server.
         
        Valid values are "ReadOnly" and "ReadWrite".
         
    .PARAMETER BatchSeparator    
        A string to separate groups of SQL statements being executed. By default, this is "GO".
         
    .PARAMETER ClientName
        By default, this command sets the client's ApplicationName property to "dbatools PowerShell module - dbatools.io - custom connection" if you're doing anything that requires profiling, you can look for this client name. Using -ClientName allows you to set your own custom client application name.
 
    .PARAMETER ConnectTimeout    
        The length of time (in seconds) to wait for a connection to the server before terminating the attempt and generating an error.
 
        Valid values are integers between 0 and 2147483647.
 
        When opening a connection to a Azure SQL Database, set the connection timeout to 30 seconds.
         
    .PARAMETER EncryptConnection    
        If this switch is enabled, SQL Server uses SSL encryption for all data sent between the client and server if the server has a certificate installed.
         
        For more information, see Connection String Syntax. https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/framework/data/adonet/connection-string-syntax
 
        Beginning in .NET Framework 4.5, when TrustServerCertificate is false and Encrypt is true, the server name (or IP address) in a SQL Server SSL certificate must exactly match the server name (or IP address) specified in the connection string. Otherwise, the connection attempt will fail. For information about support for certificates whose subject starts with a wildcard character (*), see Accepted wildcards used by server certificates for server authentication. https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/258858/accepted-wildcards-used-by-server-certificates-for-server-authenticati
         
    .PARAMETER FailoverPartner    
        The name of the failover partner server where database mirroring is configured.
 
        If the value of this key is "" (an empty string), then Initial Catalog must be present in the connection string, and its value must not be "".
 
        The server name can be 128 characters or less.
         
        If you specify a failover partner but the failover partner server is not configured for database mirroring and the primary server (specified with the Server keyword) is not available, then the connection will fail.
 
        If you specify a failover partner and the primary server is not configured for database mirroring, the connection to the primary server (specified with the Server keyword) will succeed if the primary server is available.
 
 
    .PARAMETER IsActiveDirectoryUniversalAuth    
        If this switch is enabled, the connection will be configured to use Azure Active Directory authentication.
 
    .PARAMETER LockTimeout    
        Sets the time in seconds required for the connection to time out when the current transaction is locked.
         
    .PARAMETER MaxPoolSize    
        Sets the maximum number of connections allowed in the connection pool for this specific connection string.
         
    .PARAMETER MinPoolSize    
        Sets the minimum number of connections allowed in the connection pool for this specific connection string.
         
    .PARAMETER MultipleActiveResultSets    
        If this switch is enabled, an application can maintain multiple active result sets (MARS).
         
        If this switch is not enabled, an application must process or cancel all result sets from one batch before it can execute any other batch on that connection.
 
    .PARAMETER MultiSubnetFailover    
        If this switch is enabled, and your application is connecting to an AlwaysOn availability group (AG) on different subnets, detection of and connection to the currently active server will be faster. For more information about SqlClient support for Always On Availability Groups, see https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/framework/data/adonet/sql/sqlclient-support-for-high-availability-disaster-recovery
 
    .PARAMETER NetworkProtocol    
        Explicitly sets the network protocol used to connect to the server.
         
        Valid values are "TcpIp","NamedPipes","Multiprotocol","AppleTalk","BanyanVines","Via","SharedMemory" and "NWLinkIpxSpx"
 
    .PARAMETER NonPooledConnection    
        If this switch is enabled, a non-pooled connection will be requested.
 
    .PARAMETER PacketSize    
        Sets the size in bytes of the network packets used to communicate with an instance of SQL Server. Must match at server.
         
    .PARAMETER PooledConnectionLifetime    
        When a connection is returned to the pool, its creation time is compared with the current time and the connection is destroyed if that time span (in seconds) exceeds the value specified by Connection Lifetime. This is useful in clustered configurations to force load balancing between a running server and a server just brought online.
 
        A value of zero (0) causes pooled connections to have the maximum connection timeout.
         
    .PARAMETER SqlExecutionModes    
        The SqlExecutionModes enumeration contains values that are used to specify whether the commands sent to the referenced connection to the server are executed immediately or saved in a buffer.
 
        Valid values include "CaptureSql", "ExecuteAndCaptureSql" and "ExecuteSql".
 
    .PARAMETER StatementTimeout    
        Sets the number of seconds a statement is given to run before failing with a timeout error.
 
    .PARAMETER TrustServerCertificate    
        When this switch is enabled, the channel will be encrypted while bypassing walking the certificate chain to validate trust.
 
    .PARAMETER WorkstationId    
        Sets the name of the workstation connecting to SQL Server.
  
 .PARAMETER SqlConnectionOnly
  Instead of returning a rich SMO server object, this command will only return a SqlConnection object when setting this switch.
         
    .NOTES
        dbatools PowerShell module (https://dbatools.io)
     Website: https://dbatools.io
  Copyright: (C) Chrissy LeMaire, clemaire@gmail.com
  License: GNU GPL v3 https://opensource.org/licenses/GPL-3.0
     
    .LINK
        https://dbatools.io/Connect-DbaInstance
 
    .EXAMPLE
        Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance sql2014
 
        Creates an SMO Server object that connects using Windows Authentication
 
    .EXAMPLE
        $wincred = Get-Credential ad\sqladmin
        Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance sql2014 -Credential $wincred
 
        Creates an SMO Server object that connects using alternative Windows credentials
 
    .EXAMPLE
        $sqlcred = Get-Credential sqladmin
        $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance sql2014 -Credential $sqlcred
 
        Login to sql2014 as SQL login sqladmin.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance sql2014 -ClientName "my connection"
 
        Creates an SMO Server object that connects using Windows Authentication and uses the client name "my connection". So when you open up profiler or use extended events, you can search for "my connection".
 
    .EXAMPLE
        $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance sql2014 -AppendConnectionString "Packet Size=4096;AttachDbFilename=C:\MyFolder\MyDataFile.mdf;User Instance=true;"
 
        Creates an SMO Server object that connects to sql2014 using Windows Authentication, then it sets the packet size (this can also be done via -PacketSize) and other connection attributes.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance sql2014 -NetworkProtocol TcpIp -MultiSubnetFailover
 
        Creates an SMO Server object that connects using Windows Authentication that uses TCP/IP and has MultiSubnetFailover enabled.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        $server = Connect-DbaInstance sql2016 -ApplicationIntent ReadOnly
 
        Connects with ReadOnly ApplicationIntent.    
#>
    
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipeline = $true)]
        [Alias("ServerInstance", "SqlServer")]
        [DbaInstanceParameter[]]$SqlInstance,
        [Alias("SqlCredential")]
        [PSCredential]$Credential,
        [object[]]$Database,
        [string]$AccessToken,
        [ValidateSet('ReadOnly', 'ReadWrite')]
        [string]$ApplicationIntent,
        [string]$BatchSeparator,
        [string]$ClientName = "dbatools PowerShell module - dbatools.io - custom connection",
        [int]$ConnectTimeout = ([Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.Connection.ConnectionHost]::SqlConnectionTimeout),
        [switch]$EncryptConnection,
        [string]$FailoverPartner,
        [switch]$IsActiveDirectoryUniversalAuth,
        [int]$LockTimeout,
        [int]$MaxPoolSize,
        [int]$MinPoolSize,
        [switch]$MultipleActiveResultSets,
        [switch]$MultiSubnetFailover,
        [ValidateSet('TcpIp', 'NamedPipes', 'Multiprotocol', 'AppleTalk', 'BanyanVines', 'Via', 'SharedMemory', 'NWLinkIpxSpx')]
        [string]$NetworkProtocol,
        [switch]$NonPooledConnection,
        [int]$PacketSize,
        [int]$PooledConnectionLifetime,
        [ValidateSet('CaptureSql', 'ExecuteAndCaptureSql', 'ExecuteSql')]
        [string]$SqlExecutionModes,
        [int]$StatementTimeout,
        [switch]$TrustServerCertificate,
        [string]$WorkstationId,
        [string]$AppendConnectionString,
        [switch]$SqlConnectionOnly
    )
    begin {
        Test-DbaDeprecation -DeprecatedOn "1.0.0" -EnableException:$false -Alias Connect-DbaSqlServer
        Test-DbaDeprecation -DeprecatedOn "1.0.0" -EnableException:$false -Alias Get-DbaInstance
        
        $loadedSmoVersion = [AppDomain]::CurrentDomain.GetAssemblies() | Where-Object { $_.Fullname -like "Microsoft.SqlServer.SMO,*" }
        
        if ($loadedSmoVersion) {
            $loadedSmoVersion = $loadedSmoVersion | ForEach-Object {
                if ($_.Location -match "__") {
                    ((Split-Path (Split-Path $_.Location) -Leaf) -split "__")[0]
                }
                else {
                    ((Get-ChildItem -Path $_.Location).VersionInfo.ProductVersion)
                }
            }
        }
    }
    process    {
        foreach ($instance in $SqlInstance) {
            if ($instance.Type -like "Server") {
                if ($instance.InputObject.ConnectionContext.IsOpen -eq $false) {
                    $instance.InputObject.ConnectionContext.Connect()
                }
                if ($SqlConnectionOnly) { return $instance.InputObject.ConnectionContext.SqlConnectionObject }
                else { return $instance.InputObject }
            }
            if ($instance.Type -like "SqlConnection") {
                $server = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server($instance.InputObject)
                
                if ($server.ConnectionContext.IsOpen -eq $false) {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.Connect()
                }
                if ($SqlConnectionOnly) { return $server.ConnectionContext.SqlConnectionObject }
                else { return $server }
            }
            
            if ($instance.IsConnectionString) { $server = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server($instance.InputObject) }
            else { $server = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server $instance.FullSmoName }
            
            if ($AppendConnectionString) {
                $connstring = $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectionString
                $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectionString = "$connstring;$appendconnectionstring"
                $server.ConnectionContext.Connect()
            }
            else {
                
                $server.ConnectionContext.ApplicationName = $ClientName
                
                if ($AccessToken) { $server.ConnectionContext.AccessToken = $AccessToken }
                if ($BatchSeparator) { $server.ConnectionContext.BatchSeparator = $BatchSeparator }
                if ($ConnectTimeout) { $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectTimeout = $ConnectTimeout }
                if ($Database) { $server.ConnectionContext.DatabaseName = $Database }
                if ($EncryptConnection) { $server.ConnectionContext.EncryptConnection = $true }
                if ($IsActiveDirectoryUniversalAuth) { $server.ConnectionContext.IsActiveDirectoryUniversalAuth = $true }
                if ($LockTimeout) { $server.ConnectionContext.LockTimeout = $LockTimeout }
                if ($MaxPoolSize) { $server.ConnectionContext.MaxPoolSize = $MaxPoolSize }
                if ($MinPoolSize) { $server.ConnectionContext.MinPoolSize = $MinPoolSize }
                if ($MultipleActiveResultSets) { $server.ConnectionContext.MultipleActiveResultSets = $true }
                if ($NetworkProtocol) { $server.ConnectionContext.NetworkProtocol = $NetworkProtocol }
                if ($NonPooledConnection) { $server.ConnectionContext.NonPooledConnection = $true }
                if ($PacketSize) { $server.ConnectionContext.PacketSize = $PacketSize }
                if ($PooledConnectionLifetime) { $server.ConnectionContext.PooledConnectionLifetime = $PooledConnectionLifetime }
                if ($StatementTimeout) { $server.ConnectionContext.StatementTimeout = $StatementTimeout }
                if ($SqlExecutionModes) { $server.ConnectionContext.SqlExecutionModes = $SqlExecutionModes }
                if ($TrustServerCertificate) { $server.ConnectionContext.TrustServerCertificate = $true }
                if ($WorkstationId) { $server.ConnectionContext.WorkstationId = $WorkstationId }
                
                $connstring = $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectionString
                if ($MultiSubnetFailover) { $connstring = "$connstring;MultiSubnetFailover=True" }
                if ($FailoverPartner) { $connstring = "$connstring;Failover Partner=$FailoverPartner" }
                if ($ApplicationIntent) { $connstring = "$connstring;ApplicationIntent=$ApplicationIntent" }
                
                if ($connstring -ne $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectionString) {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectionString = $connstring
                }
                
                try {
                    if ($Credential.username -ne $null) {
                        $username = ($Credential.username).TrimStart("\")
                        
                        if ($username -like "*\*") {
                            $username = $username.Split("\")[1]
                            $authtype = "Windows Authentication with Credential"
                            $server.ConnectionContext.LoginSecure = $true
                            $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectAsUser = $true
                            $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectAsUserName = $username
                            $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectAsUserPassword = ($Credential).GetNetworkCredential().Password
                        }
                        else {
                            $authtype = "SQL Authentication"
                            $server.ConnectionContext.LoginSecure = $false
                            $server.ConnectionContext.set_Login($username)
                            $server.ConnectionContext.set_SecurePassword($Credential.Password)
                        }
                    }
                    
                    $server.ConnectionContext.Connect()
                }
                catch {
                    $message = $_.Exception.InnerException.InnerException
                    $message = $message.ToString()
                    $message = ($message -Split '-->')[0]
                    $message = ($message -Split 'at System.Data.SqlClient')[0]
                    $message = ($message -Split 'at System.Data.ProviderBase')[0]
                    throw "Can't connect to $instance`: $message "
                }
                
            }
            
            
            
            if ($loadedSmoVersion -ge 11) {
                if ($server.VersionMajor -eq 8) {
                    # 2000
                    $server.SetDefaultInitFields([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Database], 'ReplicationOptions', 'Collation', 'CompatibilityLevel', 'CreateDate', 'ID', 'IsAccessible', 'IsFullTextEnabled', 'IsUpdateable', 'LastBackupDate', 'LastDifferentialBackupDate', 'LastLogBackupDate', 'Name', 'Owner', 'PrimaryFilePath', 'ReadOnly', 'RecoveryModel', 'Status', 'Version')
                    $server.SetDefaultInitFields([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Login], 'CreateDate', 'DateLastModified', 'DefaultDatabase', 'DenyWindowsLogin', 'IsSystemObject', 'Language', 'LanguageAlias', 'LoginType', 'Name', 'Sid', 'WindowsLoginAccessType')
                }
                
                elseif ($server.VersionMajor -eq 9 -or $server.VersionMajor -eq 10) {
                    # 2005 and 2008
                    $server.SetDefaultInitFields([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Database], 'ReplicationOptions', 'BrokerEnabled', 'Collation', 'CompatibilityLevel', 'CreateDate', 'ID', 'IsAccessible', 'IsFullTextEnabled', 'IsMirroringEnabled', 'IsUpdateable', 'LastBackupDate', 'LastDifferentialBackupDate', 'LastLogBackupDate', 'Name', 'Owner', 'PrimaryFilePath', 'ReadOnly', 'RecoveryModel', 'Status', 'Trustworthy', 'Version')
                    $server.SetDefaultInitFields([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Login], 'AsymmetricKey', 'Certificate', 'CreateDate', 'Credential', 'DateLastModified', 'DefaultDatabase', 'DenyWindowsLogin', 'ID', 'IsDisabled', 'IsLocked', 'IsPasswordExpired', 'IsSystemObject', 'Language', 'LanguageAlias', 'LoginType', 'MustChangePassword', 'Name', 'PasswordExpirationEnabled', 'PasswordPolicyEnforced', 'Sid', 'WindowsLoginAccessType')
                }
                
                else {
                    # 2012 and above
                    $server.SetDefaultInitFields([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Database], 'ReplicationOptions', 'ActiveConnections', 'AvailabilityDatabaseSynchronizationState', 'AvailabilityGroupName', 'BrokerEnabled', 'Collation', 'CompatibilityLevel', 'ContainmentType', 'CreateDate', 'ID', 'IsAccessible', 'IsFullTextEnabled', 'IsMirroringEnabled', 'IsUpdateable', 'LastBackupDate', 'LastDifferentialBackupDate', 'LastLogBackupDate', 'Name', 'Owner', 'PrimaryFilePath', 'ReadOnly', 'RecoveryModel', 'Status', 'Trustworthy', 'Version')
                    $server.SetDefaultInitFields([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Login], 'AsymmetricKey', 'Certificate', 'CreateDate', 'Credential', 'DateLastModified', 'DefaultDatabase', 'DenyWindowsLogin', 'ID', 'IsDisabled', 'IsLocked', 'IsPasswordExpired', 'IsSystemObject', 'Language', 'LanguageAlias', 'LoginType', 'MustChangePassword', 'Name', 'PasswordExpirationEnabled', 'PasswordHashAlgorithm', 'PasswordPolicyEnforced', 'Sid', 'WindowsLoginAccessType')
                }
            }
            
            if ($SqlConnectionOnly) { return $server.ConnectionContext.SqlConnectionObject }
            else { return $server }
        }
    }
}