functions/Export-DbaLogin.ps1

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function Export-DbaLogin {
    <#
  .SYNOPSIS
   Exports Windows and SQL Logins to a T-SQL file. Export includes login, SID, password, default database, default language, server permissions, server roles, db permissions, db roles.
 
  .DESCRIPTION
   Exports Windows and SQL Logins to a T-SQL file. Export includes login, SID, password, default database, default language, server permissions, server roles, db permissions, db roles.
 
  .PARAMETER SqlInstance
   The SQL Server instance name. SQL Server 2000 and above supported.
 
  .PARAMETER SqlCredential
    Allows you to login to servers using SQL Logins instead of Windows Authentication (AKA Integrated or Trusted). To use:
 
   $scred = Get-Credential, then pass $scred object to the -SqlCredential parameter.
 
   Windows Authentication will be used if SqlCredential is not specified. SQL Server does not accept Windows credentials being passed as credentials.
 
   To connect as a different Windows user, run PowerShell as that user.
 
  .PARAMETER Login
   The login(s) to process. Options for this list are auto-populated from the server. If unspecified, all logins will be processed.
 
  .PARAMETER ExcludeLogin
   The login(s) to exclude. Options for this list are auto-populated from the server.
 
  .PARAMETER Database
   The database(s) to process. Options for this list are auto-populated from the server. If unspecified, all databases will be processed.
 
  .PARAMETER FilePath
   The file to write to.
 
  .PARAMETER NoClobber
   If this switch is enabled, a file already existing at the path specified by FilePath will not be overwritten.
 
  .PARAMETER Append
   If this switch is enabled, content will be appended to a file already existing at the path specified by FilePath. If the file does not exist, it will be created.
 
  .PARAMETER NoJobs
   If this switch is enabled, Agent job ownership will not be exported.
 
  .PARAMETER NoDatabases
   If this switch is enabled, mappings for databases will not be exported.
 
  .PARAMETER WhatIf
   If this switch is enabled, no actions are performed but informational messages will be displayed that explain what would happen if the command were to run.
 
  .PARAMETER Confirm
   If this switch is enabled, you will be prompted for confirmation before executing any operations that change state.
 
  .PARAMETER EnableException
   By default, when something goes wrong we try to catch it, interpret it and give you a friendly warning message.
   This avoids overwhelming you with "sea of red" exceptions, but is inconvenient because it basically disables advanced scripting.
   Using this switch turns this "nice by default" feature off and enables you to catch exceptions with your own try/catch.
    
  .NOTES
   Tags: Export, Login
   Author: Chrissy LeMaire (@cl), netnerds.net
   Website: https://dbatools.io
   Copyright: (C) Chrissy LeMaire, clemaire@gmail.com
   License: GNU GPL v3 https://opensource.org/licenses/GPL-3.0
 
  .LINK
   https://dbatools.io/Export-DbaLogin
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Export-DbaLogin -SqlInstance sql2005 -FilePath C:\temp\sql2005-logins.sql
 
   Exports the logins for SQL Server "sql2005" and writes them to the file "C:\temp\sql2005-logins.sql"
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Export-DbaLogin -SqlInstance sqlserver2014a -Exclude realcajun -SqlCredential $scred -FilePath C:\temp\logins.sql -Append
 
   Authenticates to sqlserver2014a using SQL Authentication. Exports all logins except for realcajun to C:\temp\logins.sql, and appends to the file if it exists. If not, the file will be created.
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Export-DbaLogin -SqlInstance sqlserver2014a -Login realcajun, netnerds -FilePath C:\temp\logins.sql
 
   Exports ONLY logins netnerds and realcajun FROM sqlserver2014a to the file C:\temp\logins.sql
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Export-DbaLogin -SqlInstance sqlserver2014a -Login realcajun, netnerds -Database HR, Accounting
 
   Exports ONLY logins netnerds and realcajun FROM sqlserver2014a with the permissions on databases HR and Accounting
 #>

    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess = $true)]
    param (
        [parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipeline = $true)]
        [Alias("ServerInstance", "SqlServer")]
        [DbaInstanceParameter]$SqlInstance,
        [Alias("Credential")]
        [PSCredential]
        $SqlCredential,
        [object[]]$Login,
        [object[]]$ExcludeLogin,
        [Alias("Databases")]
        [object[]]$Database,
        [Alias("OutFile", "Path", "FileName")]
        [string]$FilePath,
        [Alias("NoOverwrite")]
        [switch]$NoClobber,
        [switch]$Append,
        [switch]$NoDatabases,
        [switch]$NoJobs,
        [switch][Alias('Silent')]$EnableException
    )

    begin {

        if ($FilePath) {
            if ($FilePath -notlike "*\*") {
                $FilePath = ".\$filepath"
            }
            $directory = Split-Path $FilePath
            $exists = Test-Path $directory

            if ($exists -eq $false) {
                Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Parent directory $directory does not exist."
            }
        }

        $outsql = @()
    }
    process {
        if (Test-FunctionInterrupt) {
            return
        }

        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Connecting to $sqlinstance."
        $server = Connect-SqlInstance -SqlInstance $SqlInstance -SqlCredential $sqlcredential
        
        if ($NoDatabases -eq $false) {
            # if we got a database or a list of databases passed
            # and we need to enumerate mappings, login.enumdatabasemappings() takes forever
            # the cool thing though is that database.enumloginmappings() is fast. A lot.
            # if we get a list of databases passed (or even the default list of all the databases)
            # we save outself a call to enumloginmappings if there is no map at all
            $DbMapping = @()
            $DbsToMap = $server.Databases
            if ($Database) {
                $DbsToMap = $DbsToMap | Where-Object Name -in $Database 
            }
            foreach ($db in $DbsToMap) {
                if ($db.IsAccessible -eq $false) {
                    continue
                }
                $dbmap = $db.EnumLoginMappings()
                foreach ($el in $dbmap) {
                    $DbMapping += [pscustomobject]@{
                        Database  = $db.Name
                        UserName  = $el.Username
                        LoginName = $el.LoginName
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        
        foreach ($sourceLogin in $server.Logins) {
            $userName = $sourceLogin.name

            if ($Login -and $Login -notcontains $userName -or $ExcludeLogin -contains $userName) {
                continue
            }

            if ($userName.StartsWith("##") -or $userName -eq 'sa') {
                Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Skipping $userName."
                continue
            }

            $serverName = $server

            $userBase = ($userName.Split("\")[0]).ToLower()
            if ($serverName -eq $userBase -or $userName.StartsWith("NT ")) {
                if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess("console", "Stating $userName is skipped because it is a local machine name.")) {
                    Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "$userName is skipped because it is a local machine name."
                    continue
                }
            }

            if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess("Outfile", "Adding T-SQL for login $userName")) {
                if ($FilePath) {
                    Write-Message -Level Output -Message "Exporting $userName."
                }
                
                $outsql += "`r`nUSE master`n"
                # Getting some attributes
                $defaultDb = $sourceLogin.DefaultDatabase
                $language = $sourceLogin.Language

                if ($sourceLogin.PasswordPolicyEnforced -eq $false) {
                    $checkPolicy = "OFF"
                }
                else {
                    $checkPolicy = "ON"
                }

                if (!$sourceLogin.PasswordExpirationEnabled) {
                    $checkExpiration = "OFF"
                }
                else {
                    $checkExpiration = "ON"
                }

                # Attempt to script out SQL Login
                if ($sourceLogin.LoginType -eq "SqlLogin") {
                    $sourceLoginName = $sourceLogin.name

                    switch ($server.versionMajor) {
                        0 {
                            $sql = "SELECT CONVERT(VARBINARY(256),password) AS hashedpass FROM master.dbo.syslogins WHERE loginname='$sourceLoginName'"
                        }
                        8 {
                            $sql = "SELECT CONVERT(VARBINARY(256),password) AS hashedpass FROM dbo.syslogins WHERE name='$sourceLoginName'"
                        }
                        9 {
                            $sql = "SELECT CONVERT(VARBINARY(256),password_hash) as hashedpass FROM sys.sql_logins WHERE name='$sourceLoginName'"
                        }
                        default {
                            $sql = "SELECT CAST(CONVERT(varchar(256), CAST(LOGINPROPERTY(name,'PasswordHash') AS VARBINARY(256)), 1) AS NVARCHAR(max)) AS hashedpass FROM sys.server_principals WHERE principal_id = $($sourceLogin.id)"
                        }
                    }

                    try {
                        $hashedPass = $server.ConnectionContext.ExecuteScalar($sql)
                    }
                    catch {
                        $hashedPassDt = $server.Databases['master'].ExecuteWithResults($sql)
                        $hashedPass = $hashedPassDt.Tables[0].Rows[0].Item(0)
                    }

                    if ($hashedPass.GetType().Name -ne "String") {
                        $passString = "0x"; $hashedPass | ForEach-Object {
                            $passString += ("{0:X}" -f $_).PadLeft(2, "0")
                        }
                        $hashedPass = $passString
                    }

                    $sid = "0x"; $sourceLogin.sid | ForEach-Object {
                        $sid += ("{0:X}" -f $_).PadLeft(2, "0")
                    }
                    $outsql += "IF NOT EXISTS (SELECT loginname FROM master.dbo.syslogins WHERE name = '$userName') CREATE LOGIN [$userName] WITH PASSWORD = $hashedPass HASHED, SID = $sid, DEFAULT_DATABASE = [$defaultDb], CHECK_POLICY = $checkPolicy, CHECK_EXPIRATION = $checkExpiration, DEFAULT_LANGUAGE = [$language]"
                }
                # Attempt to script out Windows User
                elseif ($sourceLogin.LoginType -eq "WindowsUser" -or $sourceLogin.LoginType -eq "WindowsGroup") {
                    $outsql += "IF NOT EXISTS (SELECT loginname FROM master.dbo.syslogins WHERE name = '$userName') CREATE LOGIN [$userName] FROM WINDOWS WITH DEFAULT_DATABASE = [$defaultDb], DEFAULT_LANGUAGE = [$language]"
                }
                # This script does not currently support certificate mapped or asymmetric key users.
                else {
                    Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "$($sourceLogin.LoginType) logins not supported. $($sourceLogin.Name) skipped."
                    continue
                }

                if ($sourceLogin.IsDisabled) {
                    $outsql += "ALTER LOGIN [$userName] DISABLE"
                }

                if ($sourceLogin.DenyWindowsLogin) {
                    $outsql += "DENY CONNECT SQL TO [$userName]"
                }
            }

            # Server Roles: sysadmin, bulklogin, etc
            foreach ($role in $server.Roles) {
                $roleName = $role.Name

                # SMO changed over time
                try {
                    $roleMembers = $role.EnumMemberNames()
                }
                catch {
                    $roleMembers = $role.EnumServerRoleMembers()
                }

                if ($roleMembers -contains $userName) {
                    $outsql += "ALTER SERVER ROLE [$roleName] ADD MEMBER [$userName]"
                }
            }

            if ($NoJobs -eq $false) {
                $ownedJobs = $server.JobServer.Jobs | Where-Object { $_.OwnerLoginName -eq $userName }

                foreach ($ownedJob in $ownedJobs) {
                    $outsql += "`n`rUSE msdb`n"
                    $outsql += "EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_update_job @job_name=N'$ownedJob', @owner_login_name=N'$userName'"
                }
            }

            if ($server.VersionMajor -ge 9) {
                # These operations are only supported by SQL Server 2005 and above.
                # Securables: Connect SQL, View any database, Administer Bulk Operations, etc.

                $perms = $server.EnumServerPermissions($userName)
                $outsql += "`n`rUSE master`n"
                foreach ($perm in $perms) {
                    $permState = $perm.permissionstate
                    $permType = $perm.PermissionType
                    $grantor = $perm.grantor

                    if ($permState -eq "GrantWithGrant") {
                        $grantWithGrant = "WITH GRANT OPTION"
                        $permState = "GRANT"
                    }
                    else {
                        $grantWithGrant = $null
                    }

                    $outsql += "$permState $permType TO [$userName] $grantWithGrant AS [$grantor]"
                }

                # Credential mapping. Credential removal not currently supported for Syncs.
                $loginCredentials = $server.Credentials | Where-Object { $_.Identity -eq $sourceLogin.Name }
                foreach ($credential in $loginCredentials) {
                    $credentialName = $credential.Name
                    $outsql += "PRINT '$userName is associated with the $credentialName credential'"
                }
            }

            if ($NoDatabases -eq $false) {
                if ($userName -notin $DbMapping.LoginName) {
                    Write-Message -Level VeryVerbose -Message "Skipping as $userName is not mapped to an user of the databases."
                    continue
                }
                $dbs = $sourceLogin.EnumDatabaseMappings()
                # Adding database mappings and securables
                foreach ($db in $dbs) {
                    $dbName = $db.dbname
                    $sourceDb = $server.Databases[$dbName]
                    $dbUserName = $db.username

                    $outsql += "`r`nUSE [$dbName]`n"
                    try {
                        $sql = $server.Databases[$dbName].Users[$dbUserName].Script()
                        $outsql += $sql
                    }
                    catch {
                        Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "User cannot be found in selected database."
                    }

                    # Skipping updating dbowner

                    # Database Roles: db_owner, db_datareader, etc
                    foreach ($role in $sourceDb.Roles) {
                        if ($role.EnumMembers() -contains $userName) {
                            $roleName = $role.Name
                            $outsql += "ALTER ROLE [$roleName] ADD MEMBER [$userName]"
                        }
                    }

                    # Connect, Alter Any Assembly, etc
                    $perms = $sourceDb.EnumDatabasePermissions($userName)
                    foreach ($perm in $perms) {
                        $permState = $perm.PermissionState
                        $permType = $perm.PermissionType
                        $grantor = $perm.Grantor

                        if ($permState -eq "GrantWithGrant") {
                            $grantWithGrant = "WITH GRANT OPTION"
                            $permState = "GRANT"
                        }
                        else {
                            $grantWithGrant = $null
                        }

                        $outsql += "$permState $permType TO [$userName] $grantWithGrant AS [$grantor]"
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
    end {
        $sql = $sql | Where-Object { $_ -notlike "CREATE USER [dbo] FOR LOGIN * WITH DEFAULT_SCHEMA=[dbo]" }

        $sql = $outsql -join "`r`nGO`r`n"

        if ($FilePath) {
            $sql | Out-File -Encoding UTF8 -FilePath $FilePath -Append:$Append -NoClobber:$NoClobber
        }
        else {
            $sql
        }
        Test-DbaDeprecation -DeprecatedOn "1.0.0" -EnableException:$false -Alias Export-SqlLogin
    }
}