functions/Get-DbaDatabase.ps1

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function Get-DbaDatabase {
    <#
  .SYNOPSIS
   Gets SQL Database information for each database that is present on the target instance(s) of SQL Server.
 
  .DESCRIPTION
   The Get-DbaDatabase command gets SQL database information for each database that is present on the target instance(s) of
   SQL Server. If the name of the database is provided, the command will return only the specific database information.
 
   .PARAMETER SqlInstance
   The SQL Server instance to connect to.
 
        .PARAMETER SqlCredential
   Allows you to login to servers using SQL Logins instead of Windows Authentication (AKA Integrated or Trusted). To use:
 
   $scred = Get-Credential, then pass $scred object to the -SqlCredential parameter.
 
   Windows Authentication will be used if SqlCredential is not specified. SQL Server does not accept Windows credentials being passed as credentials.
 
   To connect as a different Windows user, run PowerShell as that user.
 
  .PARAMETER Database
   Specifies one or more database(s) to process. If unspecified, all databases will be processed.
 
  .PARAMETER ExcludeDatabase
   Specifies one or more database(s) to exclude from processing.
 
  .PARAMETER ExcludeAllUserDb
   If this switch is enabled, only databases which are not User databases will be processed.
 
   This parameter cannot be used with -ExcludeAllSystemDb.
 
  .PARAMETER ExcludeAllSystemDb
   If this switch is enabled, only databases which are not System databases will be processed.
 
   This parameter cannot be used with -ExcludeAllUserDb.
 
  .PARAMETER Status
   Specifies one or more database statuses to filter on. Only databases in the status(es) listed will be returned. Valid options for this parameter are 'Emergency', 'Normal', 'Offline', 'Recovering', 'Restoring', 'Standby', and 'Suspect'.    
 
  .PARAMETER Access
   Filters databases returned by their access type. Valid options for this parameter are 'ReadOnly' and 'ReadWrite'. If omitted, no filtering is performed.
 
  .PARAMETER Owner
   Specifies one or more database owners. Only databases owned by the listed owner(s) will be returned.
 
  .PARAMETER Encrypted
   If this switch is enabled, only databases which have Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) enabled will be returned.
 
  .PARAMETER RecoveryModel
   Filters databases returned by their recovery model. Valid options for this parameter are 'Full', 'Simple', and 'BulkLogged'.
 
  .PARAMETER NoFullBackup
   If this switch is enabled, only databases without a full backup recorded by SQL Server will be returned. This will also indicate which of these databases only have CopyOnly full backups.
 
  .PARAMETER NoFullBackupSince
   Only databases which haven't had a full backup since the specified DateTime will be returned.
 
  .PARAMETER NoLogBackup
   If this switch is enabled, only databases without a log backup recorded by SQL Server will be returned. This will also indicate which of these databases only have CopyOnly log backups.
 
  .PARAMETER NoLogBackupSince
   Only databases which haven't had a log backup since the specified DateTime will be returned.
 
  .PARAMETER IncludeLastUsed
   If this switch is enabled, the last used read & write times for each database will be returned. This data is retrieved from sys.dm_db_index_usage_stats which is reset when SQL Server is restarted.
 
  .PARAMETER WhatIf
   If this switch is enabled, no actions are performed but informational messages will be displayed that explain what would happen if the command were to run.
 
  .PARAMETER Confirm
   If this switch is enabled, you will be prompted for confirmation before executing any operations that change state.
 
  .PARAMETER Silent
   If this switch is enabled, the internal messaging functions will be silenced.
 
  .NOTES
   Tags: Database
   Original Author: Garry Bargsley (@gbargsley | http://blog.garrybargsley.com)
            Author: Klaas Vandenberghe ( @PowerDbaKlaas )
            Author: Simone Bizzotto ( @niphlod )
 
   Website: https://dbatools.io
   Copyright: (C) Chrissy LeMaire, clemaire@gmail.com
   License: GNU GPL v3 https://opensource.org/licenses/GPL-3.0
 
  .LINK
   https://dbatools.io/Get-DbaDatabase
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Get-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance localhost
 
   Returns all databases on the local default SQL Server instance.
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Get-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance localhost -ExcludeAllUserDb
 
   Returns only the system databases on the local default SQL Server instance.
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Get-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance localhost -ExcludeAllSystemDb
 
   Returns only the user databases on the local default SQL Server instance.
 
  .EXAMPLE
   'localhost','sql2016' | Get-DbaDatabase
 
   Returns databases on multiple instances piped into the function.
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Get-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance SQL1\SQLExpress -RecoveryModel full,Simple
 
   Returns only the user databases in Full or Simple recovery model from SQL Server instance SQL1\SQLExpress.
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Get-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance SQL1\SQLExpress -Status Normal
 
   Returns only the user databases with status 'normal' from SQL Server instance SQL1\SQLExpress.
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Get-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance SQL1\SQLExpress -IncludeLastUsed
 
   Returns the databases from SQL Server instance SQL1\SQLExpress and includes the last used information
   from the sys.dm_db_index_usage_stats DMV.
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Get-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance SQL1\SQLExpress,SQL2 -ExcludeDatabase model,master
 
   Returns all databases except master and model from SQL Server instances SQL1\SQLExpress and SQL2.
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Get-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance SQL1\SQLExpress,SQL2 -Encrypted
 
   Returns only databases using TDE from SQL Server instances SQL1\SQLExpress and SQL2.
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Get-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance SQL1\SQLExpress,SQL2 -Access ReadOnly
 
   Returns only read only databases from SQL Server instances SQL1\SQLExpress and SQL2.
 
  .EXAMPLE
   Get-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance SQL2,SQL3 -Database OneDB,OtherDB
 
   Returns databases 'OneDb' and 'OtherDB' from SQL Server instances SQL2 and SQL3 if databases by those names exist on those instances.
 #>

    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName = "Default")]
    [OutputType([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Database[]])]
    Param (
        [parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipeline = $True)]
        [Alias("ServerInstance", "SqlServer")]
        [DbaInstanceParameter[]]$SqlInstance,
        [PSCredential]$SqlCredential,
        [Alias("Databases")]
        [object[]]$Database,
        [object[]]$ExcludeDatabase,
        [Alias("SystemDbOnly", "NoUserDb")]
        [switch]$ExcludeAllUserDb,
        [Alias("UserDbOnly", "NoSystemDb")]
        [switch]$ExcludeAllSystemDb,
        [string[]]$Owner,
        [switch]$Encrypted,
        [ValidateSet('EmergencyMode', 'Normal', 'Offline', 'Recovering', 'Restoring', 'Standby', 'Suspect')]
        [string[]]$Status = @('EmergencyMode', 'Normal', 'Offline', 'Recovering', 'Restoring', 'Standby', 'Suspect'),
        [ValidateSet('ReadOnly', 'ReadWrite')]
        [string]$Access,
        [ValidateSet('Full', 'Simple', 'BulkLogged')]
        [string[]]$RecoveryModel = @('Full', 'Simple', 'BulkLogged'),
        [switch]$NoFullBackup,
        [datetime]$NoFullBackupSince,
        [switch]$NoLogBackup,
        [datetime]$NoLogBackupSince,
        [switch]$Silent,
        [switch]$IncludeLastUsed
    )
    
    begin {
        
        if ($ExcludeAllUserDb -and $ExcludeAllSystemDb) {
            Stop-Function -Message "You cannot specify both ExcludeAllUserDb and ExcludeAllSystemDb." -Continue -Silent $Silent
        }
        
    }
    process {
        if (Test-FunctionInterrupt) { return }
        
        foreach ($instance in $SqlInstance) {
            try {
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Connecting to $instance."
                $server = Connect-SqlInstance -SqlInstance $instance -SqlCredential $sqlcredential
            }
            catch {
                Stop-Function -Message "Failure" -Category ConnectionError -ErrorRecord $_ -Target $instance -Continue
            }
            
            if (!$IncludeLastUsed) {
                $dblastused = $null
            }
            else {
                ## Get last used information from the DMV
                $querylastused = "WITH agg AS
    (
      SELECT
           max(last_user_seek) last_user_seek,
           max(last_user_scan) last_user_scan,
           max(last_user_lookup) last_user_lookup,
           max(last_user_update) last_user_update,
           sd.name dbname
       FROM
           sys.dm_db_index_usage_stats, master..sysdatabases sd
       WHERE
         database_id = sd.dbid AND database_id > 4
       group by sd.name
    )
    SELECT
       dbname,
       last_read = MAX(last_read),
       last_write = MAX(last_write)
    FROM
    (
       SELECT dbname, last_user_seek, NULL FROM agg
       UNION ALL
       SELECT dbname, last_user_scan, NULL FROM agg
       UNION ALL
       SELECT dbname, last_user_lookup, NULL FROM agg
       UNION ALL
       SELECT dbname, NULL, last_user_update FROM agg
    ) AS x (dbname, last_read, last_write)
    GROUP BY
       dbname
    ORDER BY 1;"

                # put a function around this to enable Pester Testing and also to ease any future changes
                function Invoke-QueryDBlastUsed {
                    $server.Query($querylastused)
                }
                $dblastused = Invoke-QueryDBlastUsed
            }
            
            if ($ExcludeAllUserDb) {
                $DBType = @($true)
            }
            elseif ($ExcludeAllSystemDb) {
                $DBType = @($false)
            }
            else {
                $DBType = @($false, $true)
            }
            
            $Readonly = switch ($Access) { 'Readonly' { @($true) } 'ReadWrite' { @($false) }
                default { @($true, $false) } }
            $Encrypt = switch (Test-Bound $Encrypted) { $true { @($true) }
                default { @($true, $false, $null) } }
            
            $inputobject = $server.Databases |
            Where-Object {
                ($_.Name -in $Database -or !$Database) -and
                ($_.Name -notin $ExcludeDatabase -or !$ExcludeDatabase) -and
                ($_.Owner -in $Owner -or !$Owner) -and
                $_.ReadOnly -in $Readonly -and
                $_.IsSystemObject -in $DBType -and
                ((Compare-Object @($_.Status.tostring().split(',').trim()) $Status -ExcludeDifferent -IncludeEqual).inputobject.count -ge 1 -or !$status) -and
                $_.RecoveryModel -in $RecoveryModel -and
                $_.EncryptionEnabled -in $Encrypt
            }
            
            if ($NoFullBackup -or $NoFullBackupSince) {
                $dabs = (Get-DbaBackupHistory -SqlInstance $server -LastFull -IgnoreCopyOnly)
                if ($null -ne $NoFullBackupSince) {
                    $dabsWithinScope = ($dabs | Where-Object End -lt $NoFullBackupSince)
                    
                    $inputobject = $inputobject | Where-Object { $_.Name -in $dabsWithinScope.Database -and $_.Name -ne 'tempdb' }
                }
                else {
                    $inputObject = $inputObject | Where-Object { $_.Name -notin $dabs.Database -and $_.Name -ne 'tempdb' }
                }
                
            }
            if ($NoLogBackup -or $NoLogBackupSince) {
                $dabs = (Get-DbaBackupHistory -SqlInstance $server -LastLog -IgnoreCopyOnly)
                if ($null -ne $NoLogBackupSince) {
                    $dabsWithinScope = ($dabs | Where-Object End -lt $NoLogBackupSince)
                    $inputobject = $inputobject |
                    Where-Object { $_.Name -in $dabsWithinScope.Database -and $_.Name -ne 'tempdb' -and $_.RecoveryModel -ne 'Simple' }
                }
                else {
                    $inputobject = $inputObject |
                    Where-Object { $_.Name -notin $dabs.Database -and $_.Name -ne 'tempdb' -and $_.RecoveryModel -ne 'Simple' }
                }
            }
            
            $defaults = 'ComputerName', 'InstanceName', 'SqlInstance', 'Name', 'Status', 'IsAccessible', 'RecoveryModel',
            'LogReuseWaitStatus', 'Size as SizeMB', 'CompatibilityLevel as Compatibility', 'Collation', 'Owner',
            'LastBackupDate as LastFullBackup', 'LastDifferentialBackupDate as LastDiffBackup',
            'LastLogBackupDate as LastLogBackup'
            
            if ($NoFullBackup -or $NoFullBackupSince -or $NoLogBackup -or $NoLogBackupSince) {
                $defaults += ('Notes')
            }
            if ($IncludeLastUsed) {
                # Add Last Used to the default view
                $defaults += ('LastRead as LastIndexRead', 'LastWrite as LastIndexWrite')
            }
            
            try {
                foreach ($db in $inputobject) {
                    
                    $Notes = $null
                    if ($NoFullBackup -or $NoFullBackupSince) {
                        if (@($db.EnumBackupSets()).count -eq @($db.EnumBackupSets() | Where-Object { $_.IsCopyOnly }).count -and (@($db.EnumBackupSets()).count -gt 0)) {
                            $Notes = "Only CopyOnly backups"
                        }
                    }
                    
                    $lastusedinfo = $dblastused | Where-Object { $_.dbname -eq $db.name }
                    Add-Member -Force -InputObject $db -MemberType NoteProperty BackupStatus -value $Notes
                    Add-Member -Force -InputObject $db -MemberType NoteProperty -Name ComputerName -value $server.NetName
                    Add-Member -Force -InputObject $db -MemberType NoteProperty -Name InstanceName -value $server.ServiceName
                    Add-Member -Force -InputObject $db -MemberType NoteProperty -Name SqlInstance -value $server.DomainInstanceName
                    Add-Member -Force -InputObject $db -MemberType NoteProperty -Name LastRead -value $lastusedinfo.last_read
                    Add-Member -Force -InputObject $db -MemberType NoteProperty -Name LastWrite -value $lastusedinfo.last_write
                    Select-DefaultView -InputObject $db -Property $defaults
                }
            }
            catch {
                Stop-Function -ErrorRecord $_ -Target $instance -Message "Failure. Collection may have been modified. If so, please use parens (Get-DbaDatabase ....) | when working with commands that modify the collection such as Remove-DbaDatabase." -Continue
            }
        }
    }
}