functions/Write-DbaDataTable.ps1

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Function Write-DbaDataTable {
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Writes data to a SQL Server Table
     
    .DESCRIPTION
        Writes a .NET DataTable to a SQL Server table using SQL Bulk Copy
     
    .PARAMETER SqlInstance
        The SQL Server that you're connecting to.
     
    .PARAMETER SqlCredential
        Credential object used to connect to the SQL Server as a different user be it Windows or SQL Server. Windows users are determiend by the existence of a backslash, so if you are intending to use an alternative Windows connection instead of a SQL login, ensure it contains a backslash.
     
    .PARAMETER Database
        The database to write to.
     
    .PARAMETER InputObject
        This is the DataTable (or datarow) to import to SQL Server.
     
    .PARAMETER Table
        The table name. You can specify a one, two, or three part table name. If you specify a one or two part name, you must also use -Database.
         
        If the table does not exist, you can use AutoCreateTable to automatically create the table with inefficient data types.
     
    .PARAMETER Schema
        Defaults to dbo if no schema is specified.
     
    .PARAMETER BatchSize
        The batchsize for the import defaults to 5000.
     
    .PARAMETER NotifyAfter
        Sets the option to show the notification after so many rows of import
     
    .PARAMETER AutoCreateTable
        Automatically create the table if it doesn't exist. Note that the table will be created with inefficient data types such as nvarchar(max).
     
    .PARAMETER NoTableLock
        By default, a TableLock is placed on the destination table. Use this parameter to remove the lock.
     
    .PARAMETER CheckConstraints
        SqlBulkCopy option. Per Microsoft "Check constraints while data is being inserted. By default, constraints are not checked."
     
    .PARAMETER FireTriggers
        SqlBulkCopy option. Per Microsoft "When specified, cause the server to fire the insert triggers for the rows being inserted into the Database."
     
    .PARAMETER KeepIdentity
        SqlBulkCopy option. Per Microsoft "Preserve source identity values. When not specified, identity values are assigned by the destination."
     
    .PARAMETER KeepNulls
        SqlBulkCopy option. Per Microsoft "Preserve null values in the destination table regardless of the settings for default values. When not specified, null values are replaced by default values where applicable."
     
    .PARAMETER Truncate
        Prompts for confirmation then truncates destination
     
    .PARAMETER BulkCopyTimeOut
        Value in seconds for the BulkCopy operations timeout, default is 30 seconds
 
    .PARAMETER RegularUser
        The underlying connection assumes the user connecting has administrative privilege, this switch removest that assumption
        This is particularly importand when connecting to a SQL Azure Database
     
    .PARAMETER Silent
        Use this switch to disable any kind of verbose messages
     
    .PARAMETER TableLock
        SqlBulkCopy option. Per Microsoft "Obtain a bulk update lock for the duration of the bulk copy operation. When not
        specified, row locks are used." TableLock is automatically used when Turbo is specified.
     
    .PARAMETER Confirm
        Can disable prompt for confirmation by using -Confirm:$false
     
    .PARAMETER WhatIf
        Shows what would happen if the command were executed
     
    .EXAMPLE
        $datatable = Import-Csv C:\temp\customers.csv | Out-DbaDataTable
        Write-DbaDataTable -SqlInstance sql2014 -InputObject $datatable -Table mydb.dbo.customers
         
        Quickly and efficiently performs a bulk insert of all the data in customers.csv into Database: mydb, schema: dbo, table: customers
        Shows progress as rows are inserted. If table does not exist, import is halted.
     
    .EXAMPLE
        $datatable = Import-Csv C:\temp\customers.csv | Out-DbaDataTable
        $datatable | Write-DbaDataTable -SqlInstance sql2014 -Table mydb.dbo.customers
         
        Performs row by row insert. Super slow. No progress bar. Don't do this. Use -InputObject instead.
     
    .EXAMPLE
        $datatable = Import-Csv C:\temp\customers.csv | Out-DbaDataTable
        Write-DbaDataTable -SqlInstance sql2014 -InputObject $datatable -Table mydb.dbo.customers -AutoCreateTable
         
        Quickly and efficiently performs a bulk insert of all the data. If mydb.dbo.customers does not exist, it will be created with inefficient but forgiving datatypes.
     
    .EXAMPLE
        $datatable = Import-Csv C:\temp\customers.csv | Out-DbaDataTable
        Write-DbaDataTable -SqlInstance sql2014 -InputObject $datatable -Table mydb.dbo.customers -Truncate
         
        Quickly and efficiently performs a bulk insert of all the data. Prompts to confirm that truncating mydb.dbo.customers prior to import is desired.
        Prompts again to perform the import. Answer A for Yes to All.
     
    .EXAMPLE
        $datatable = Import-Csv C:\temp\customers.csv | Out-DbaDataTable
        Write-DbaDataTable -SqlInstance sql2014 -InputObject $datatable -Database mydb -Table customers -KeepNulls
         
        Quickly and efficiently performs a bulk insert of all the data into mydb.dbo.customers -- since Schema was not specified, dbo was used.
         
        Per Microsoft, KeepNulls will "Preserve null values in the destination table regardless of the settings for default values. When not specified, null values are replaced by default values where applicable."
 
     
    .EXAMPLE
        $passwd = ConvertTo-SecureString "P@ssw0rd" -AsPlainText -Force
        $AzureCredential = Mew-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential("AzureAccount"),$passwd)
        $datatable = Import-Csv C:\temp\customers.csv | Out-DbaDataTable
        Write-DbaDataTable -SqlInstance AzureDB.database.windows.net -InputObject $datatable -Database mydb -Table customers -KeepNulls -Credential $AzureCredential -ReqularUser -BulkCopyTimeOut 300
 
        This performs the same opertation as the previous example, but against a SQL Azure Database instance using the required credentials. The RegularUser switch is needed to prevent trying to get administative privilege, and we increase the BulkCopyTimeout value to cope with any latency
    .EXAMPLE
        $process = Get-Process | Out-DbaDataTable
        Write-DbaDataTable -InputObject $process -SqlInstance sql2014 -Database mydb -Table myprocesses -AutoCreateTable
         
        Creates a table based on the Process object with over 60 columns, converted from PowerShell data types to SQL Server data types. After the table is created a bulk insert is performed to add process information into the table.
         
        This is a good example of the type conversion in action. All process properties are converted, including special types like TimeSpan. Script properties are resolved before the type conversion starts thanks to Out-DbaDataTable.
     
    .NOTES
        dbatools PowerShell module (https://dbatools.io)
        Copyright (C) 2016 Chrissy LeMaire
        This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
        This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
        You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
     
    .LINK
        https://dbatools.io/Write-DbaDataTable
#>
    
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess = $true, ConfirmImpact = "High")]
    param (
        [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
        [Alias("ServerInstance", "SqlServer")]
        [ValidateNotNull()]
        [DbaInstanceParameter]
        $SqlInstance,
        
        [Parameter(Position = 1)]
        [ValidateNotNull()]
        [Alias("Credential")]
        [System.Management.Automation.PSCredential]
        $SqlCredential,
        
        [Parameter(Position = 2)]
        [string]
        $Database,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, ValueFromPipeline = $true)]
        [Alias("DataTable")]
        [ValidateNotNull()]
        [object]
        $InputObject,
        
        [Parameter(Position = 3, Mandatory = $true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [string]
        $Table,
        
        [Parameter(Position = 4)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [string]
        $Schema = 'dbo',
        
        [ValidateNotNull()]
        [int]
        $BatchSize = 50000,
        
        [ValidateNotNull()]
        [int]
        $NotifyAfter = 5000,

        [ValidateNotNull()]
        [int]
        $BulkCopyTimeOut = 5000,
        
        [switch]
        $AutoCreateTable,
        
        [switch]
        $NoTableLock,
        
        [switch]
        $CheckConstraints,
        
        [switch]
        $FireTriggers,
        
        [switch]
        $KeepIdentity,
        
        [switch]
        $KeepNulls,
        
        [switch]
        $Truncate,
        
        [switch]
        $RegularUser,
        
        [switch]
        $Silent
    )
    
    begin {
        if (!$Truncate) { $ConfirmPreference = "None" }
        
        # Getting the total rows copied is a challenge. Use SqlBulkCopyExtension.
        # http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1188384/sqlbulkcopy-row-count-when-complete
        
        $source = 'namespace System.Data.SqlClient
        {
            using Reflection;
 
            public static class SqlBulkCopyExtension
            {
                const String _rowsCopiedFieldName = "_rowsCopied";
                static FieldInfo _rowsCopiedField = null;
 
                public static int RowsCopiedCount(this SqlBulkCopy bulkCopy)
                {
                    if (_rowsCopiedField == null) _rowsCopiedField = typeof(SqlBulkCopy).GetField(_rowsCopiedFieldName, BindingFlags.NonPublic | BindingFlags.GetField | BindingFlags.Instance);
                    return (int)_rowsCopiedField.GetValue(bulkCopy);
                }
            }
        }'

        
        Add-Type -ReferencedAssemblies 'System.Data.dll' -TypeDefinition $source -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
        
        $dotcount = ([regex]::Matches($table, "\.")).count
        
        if ($dotcount -lt 2 -and $Database -eq $null) {
            Stop-Function -Message "You must specify a database or fully qualififed table name"
            return
        }
        
        if ($dotcount -eq 1) {
            $schema = $Table.Split(".")[0]
            $table = $Table.Split(".")[1]
        }
        
        if ($dotcount -eq 2) {
            $Database = $Table.Split(".")[0]
            $schema = $Table.Split(".")[1]
            $table = $Table.Split(".")[2]
        }
        
        if ($Database -match "\[.*\]"){
            $Database = ($Database -replace '\[','') -replace '\]',''
        }
        
        if ($Schema -match "\[.*\]"){
            $Schema = ($Schema -replace '\[','') -replace '\]',''
        }

        if ($table -match "\[.*\]"){
            $table = ($table -replace '\[','') -replace '\]',''
        }

        $fqtn = "[$Database].[$Schema].[$table]"
        
        try {
            Write-Message -Level VeryVerbose -Message "Connecting to $SqlInstance" -Target $SqlInstance
            $server = Connect-SqlInstance -SqlInstance $SqlInstance -SqlCredential $SqlCredential -RegularUser:$RegularUser
        }
        catch {
            Stop-Function -Message "Failed to process Instance $SqlInstance" -ErrorRecord $_ -Target $SqlInstance
            return
        }

        if ($server.servertype -eq 'SqlAzureDatabase') {     
            #For some reasons SMO wants an initial pull when talking to Azure Sql DB
            #This will throw and be caught, and then we can continue as normal.
            try {
                $server.databases | out-null
            }
            catch {}
        }
        $db = $server.Databases | Where-Object Name -eq $Database
    
        if ($db -eq $null) {
            Stop-Function -Message "$Database does not exist" -Target $SqlInstance
            return
        }
    
        $bulkCopyOptions = @()
        $options = "TableLock", "CheckConstraints", "FireTriggers", "KeepIdentity", "KeepNulls", "Default", "Truncate"
        
        foreach ($option in $options) {
            $optionValue = Get-Variable $option -ValueOnly -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
            if ($optionValue -eq $true) { $bulkCopyOptions += "$option" }
        }
        
        $bulkCopyOptions = $bulkCopyOptions -join " & "
        
        if ($truncate -eq $true) {
            if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($SqlInstance, "Truncating $fqtn")) {
                try {
                    Write-Message -Level Output -Message "Truncating $fqtn"
                    $null = $server.Databases[$Database].ExecuteNonQuery("TRUNCATE TABLE $fqtn")
                }
                catch {
                    Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Could not truncate $fqtn. Table may not exist or may have key constraints." -ErrorRecord $_
                }
            }
        }
        
        $tablelock = $NoTableLock -eq $false
                    
        $bulkcopy = New-Object Data.SqlClient.SqlBulkCopy("$($server.ConnectionContext.ConnectionString);Database=$Database")
        $bulkcopy.DestinationTableName = $fqtn
        $bulkcopy.BatchSize = $batchsize
        $bulkcopy.NotifyAfter = $NotifyAfter
        $bulkcopy.BulkCopyTimeOut = $BulkCopyTimeOut
        
        $elapsed = [System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch]::StartNew()
        # Add rowcount output
        $bulkCopy.Add_SqlRowscopied( {
                $script:totalrows = $args[1].RowsCopied
                $percent = [int](($script:totalrows / $rowcount) * 100)
                $timetaken = [math]::Round($elapsed.Elapsed.TotalSeconds, 1)
                Write-Progress -id 1 -activity "Inserting $rowcount rows" -percentcomplete $percent -status ([System.String]::Format("Progress: {0} rows ({1}%) in {2} seconds", $script:totalrows, $percent, $timetaken))
            })
        
        $PStoSQLtypes = @{
            #PS datatype = SQL data type
            'System.Int32'    = 'int';
            'System.UInt32'   = 'bigint';
            'System.Int16'    = 'smallint';
            'System.UInt16'   = 'int';
            'System.Int64'    = 'bigint';
            'System.UInt64' = 'decimal(20,0)';
            'System.Decimal'  = 'decimal(20,5)';
            'System.Single'   = 'bigint';
            'System.Double'   = 'float';
            'System.Byte'     = 'tinyint';
            'System.SByte'    = 'smallint';
            'System.TimeSpan' = 'nvarchar(30)';
            'System.String' = 'nvarchar(MAX)';
            'System.Char' = 'nvarchar(1)'
            'System.DateTime' = 'datetime2';
            'System.Boolean' = 'bit';
            'System.Guid' = 'uniqueidentifier';
            'Int32' = 'int';
            'UInt32' = 'bigint';
            'Int16' = 'smallint';
            'UInt16' = 'int';
            'Int64' = 'bigint';
            'UInt64' = 'decimal(20,0)';
            'Decimal'         = 'decimal(20,5)';
            'Single'          = 'bigint';
            'Double' = 'float';
            'Byte'            = 'tinyint';
            'SByte'           = 'smallint';
            'TimeSpan'        = 'nvarchar(30)';
            'String' = 'nvarchar(MAX)';
            'Char' = 'nvarchar(1)'
            'DateTime' = 'datetime2';
            'Boolean' = 'bit';
            'Bool' = 'bit';
            'Guid' = 'uniqueidentifier';
            'int' = 'int';
            'long' = 'bigint';
        }
        
    }
    process {
        if (Test-FunctionInterrupt) { return }
        if ($InputObject -eq $null) {
            Stop-Function -Message "Input object is null"
            return
        }
        
        $validtypes = @([System.Data.DataSet], [System.Data.DataTable], [System.Data.DataRow], [System.Data.DataRow[]]) #[System.Data.Common.DbDataReader], [System.Data.IDataReader]
        
            if ($InputObject.GetType() -notin $validtypes) {
            Stop-Function -Message "Data is not of the right type (DbDataReader, DataTable, DataRow, or IDataReader). Tip: Try using Out-DbaDataTable to convert the object first."
            return
        }
        
        If ($InputObject.GetType() -eq [System.Data.DataSet]) {
            if ($InputObject.Tables -ne $null) { $InputObject = $InputObject.Tables }
        }
        
        $db.tables.refresh()
        $tableExists = $db | Where-Object { $table -in $_.Tables.Name -and $_.Tables.Schema -eq $schema }
            
        if ($tableExists -eq $null) {
            if ($AutoCreateTable -eq $false) {
                Stop-Function -Message "$fqtn does not exist. Use -AutoCreateTable to AutoCreate."
                return
            }
            else {
                if ($schema -notin $server.Databases[0].Schemas.Name) {
                    Stop-Function -Message "Schema does not exist"
                    return
                }
                
                # Get SQL datatypes by best guess on first data row
                $sqldatatypes = @(); $index = -1
                $columns = $InputObject.Columns
                
                if ($columns -eq $null) { $columns = $InputObject.Table.Columns }
                
                foreach ($column in $columns) {
                    $sqlcolumnname = $column.ColumnName
                    
                    try {
                        $columnvalue = $InputObject.Rows[0].$sqlcolumnname
                    }
                    catch {
                        $columnvalue = $InputObject.$sqlcolumnname
                    }
                    
                    if ($columnvalue -eq $null) {
                        $columnvalue = $InputObject.$sqlcolumnname
                    }
                    
                    # PS to SQL type conversion
                    # If data type exists in hash table, use the corresponding SQL type
                    # Else, fallback to nvarchar
                        if ($PStoSQLtypes.Keys -contains $column.DataType) {
                        $sqldatatype = $PStoSQLtypes[$($column.DataType.toString())]
                    }
                    else {
                        $sqldatatype = "nvarchar(MAX)"
                    }
                    
                    $sqldatatypes += "[$sqlcolumnname] $sqldatatype"
                }
                
                $sql = "BEGIN CREATE TABLE $fqtn ($($sqldatatypes -join ' NULL,')) END"
                
                Write-Message -Level Debug -Message $sql
                
                    if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($SqlInstance, "Creating table $fqtn")) {
                    try {
                        $null = $server.Databases[$Database].ExecuteNonQuery($sql)
                    }
                    catch {
                        Stop-Function -Message "The following query failed: $sql" -ErrorRecord $_
                        return
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        
            $rowcount = $InputObject.Rows.count
        if ($rowcount -eq 0) { $rowcount = 1 }
        
        if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($SqlInstance, "Writing $rowcount rows to $fqtn")) {
            $bulkCopy.WriteToServer($InputObject)
            if ($rowcount -is [int]) { Write-Progress -id 1 -activity "Inserting $rowcount rows" -status "Complete" -Completed }
        }
    }
    end {
        if ($bulkcopy) {
            $bulkcopy.Close()
            $bulkcopy.Dispose()
        }
    }
    }