functions/Copy-DbaDatabase.ps1

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function Copy-DbaDatabase {
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Migrates SQL Server databases from one SQL Server to another.
 
    .DESCRIPTION
        This script provides the ability to migrate databases using detach/copy/attach or backup/restore. This script works with named instances, clusters and SQL Server Express Edition.
 
        By default, databases will be migrated to the destination SQL Server's default data and log directories. You can override this by specifying -ReuseSourceFolderStructure. Filestreams and filegroups are also migrated. Safety is emphasized.
 
        If you are experiencing issues with Copy-DbaDatabase, please use Backup-DbaDatabase | Restore-DbaDatabase instead.
     
    .PARAMETER Source
        Source SQL Server.
 
    .PARAMETER SourceSqlCredential
        Login to the target instance using alternative credentials. Windows and SQL Authentication supported. Accepts credential objects (Get-Credential)
 
    .PARAMETER Destination
        Destination SQL Server. You may specify multiple servers.
 
        Note that when using -BackupRestore with multiple servers, the backup will only be performed once and backups will be deleted at the end (if you didn't specify -NoBackupCleanup).
 
        When using -DetachAttach with multiple servers, -Reattach must be specified.
 
    .PARAMETER DestinationSqlCredential
        Login to the target instance using alternative credentials. Windows and SQL Authentication supported. Accepts credential objects (Get-Credential)
 
    .PARAMETER Database
        Migrates only specified databases. This list is auto-populated from the server for tab completion. Multiple databases may be specified as a collection.
 
    .PARAMETER ExcludeDatabase
        Excludes specified databases when performing -AllDatabases migrations. This list is auto-populated from the Source for tab completion.
 
    .PARAMETER AllDatabases
        If this switch is enabled, all user databases will be migrated. System and support databases will not be migrated. Requires -BackupRestore or -DetachAttach.
 
    .PARAMETER BackupRestore
        If this switch is enabled, the copy-only backup and restore method will be used to migrate the database(s). This method requires that you specify -SharedPath in a valid UNC format (\\server\share).
 
        Backups will be immediately deleted after use unless -NoBackupCleanup is specified.
 
    .PARAMETER SharedPath
        Specifies the network location for the backup files. The SQL Server service accounts must have read/write permission on this path.
 
    .PARAMETER WithReplace
        If this switch is enabled, the restore is executed with WITH REPLACE.
 
    .PARAMETER NoRecovery
        If this switch is enabled, the restore is executed with WITH NORECOVERY. Ideal for staging.
 
    .PARAMETER NoBackupCleanup
        If this switch is enabled, backups generated by this cmdlet will not be deleted after they are restored. The default behavior is to delete these backups.
 
    .PARAMETER NumberFiles
        Number of files to split the backup. Default is 3.
 
    .PARAMETER DetachAttach
        If this switch is enabled, the detach/copy/attach method is used to perform database migrations. No files are deleted on Source. If Destination attachment fails, the Source database will be reattached. File copies are performed over administrative shares (\\server\x$\mssql) using BITS. If a database is being mirrored, the mirror will be broken prior to migration.
 
    .PARAMETER Reattach
        If this switch is enabled, all databases are reattached to Source after DetachAttach migration.
 
    .PARAMETER SetSourceReadOnly
        If this switch is enabled, all migrated databases are set to ReadOnly on Source prior to detach/attach & backup/restore.
 
        If -Reattach is used, databases are set to read-only after reattaching.
 
    .PARAMETER ReuseSourceFolderStructure
        If this switch is enabled, databases will be migrated to a data and log directory structure on Destination mirroring that used on Source. By default, the default data and log directories for Destination will be used when the databases are migrated.
 
        The structure on Source will be kept exactly, so consider this if you're migrating between different versions and use part of Microsoft's default Sql structure (MSSql12.INSTANCE, etc)
 
        To reuse Destination folder structure, use the -WithReplace switch.
 
    .PARAMETER IncludeSupportDbs
        If this switch is enabled, ReportServer, ReportServerTempDb, SSISDB, and distribution databases will be copied if they exist on Source. A log file named $SOURCE-$destinstance-$date-Sqls.csv will be written to the current directory.
 
        Use of this switch requires -BackupRestore or -DetachAttach as well.
 
    .PARAMETER InputObject
        Enables piped input from Get-DbaDatabase
 
    .PARAMETER UseLastBackup
        Use the last full, diff and logs instead of performing backups. Note that the backups must exist in a location accessible by all destination servers, such a network share.
 
    .PARAMETER Continue
        If specified, will to attempt to restore transaction log backups on top of existing database(s) in Recovering or Standby states. Only usable with -UseLastBackup
 
    .PARAMETER NoCopyOnly
        If this switch is enabled, backups will be taken without COPY_ONLY. This will break the LSN backup chain, which will interfere with the restore chain of the database.
 
        By default this switch is disabled, so backups will be taken with COPY_ONLY. This will preserve the LSN backup chain.
 
        For more details please refer to this MSDN article - https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms191495.aspx
 
    .PARAMETER NewName
        If a single database is being copied, this will be used to rename the database during the copy process. Any occurrence of the original database name in the physical file names will be replaced with NewName
        If specified with multiple databases a warning will be raised and the copy stopped
 
        This option is mutually exclusive of Prefix
 
    .PARAMETER Prefix
        All copied database names and physical files will be prefixed with this string
 
        This option is mutually exclusive of NewName
 
    .PARAMETER SetSourceOffline
        If this switch is enabled, the Source database will be set to Offline after being copied.
 
    .PARAMETER WhatIf
        If this switch is enabled, no actions are performed but informational messages will be displayed that explain what would happen if the command were to run.
 
    .PARAMETER Confirm
        If this switch is enabled, you will be prompted for confirmation before executing any operations that change state.
 
    .PARAMETER EnableException
        By default, when something goes wrong we try to catch it, interpret it and give you a friendly warning message.
        This avoids overwhelming you with "sea of red" exceptions, but is inconvenient because it basically disables advanced scripting.
        Using this switch turns this "nice by default" feature off and enables you to catch exceptions with your own try/catch.
 
    .PARAMETER Force
        If this switch is enabled, existing databases on Destination with matching names from Source will be dropped.
        If using -DetachReattach, mirrors will be broken and the database(s) dropped from Availability Groups.
        If using -SetSourceReadonly, this will instantly roll back any open transactions that may be stopping the process.
 
    .NOTES
        Tags: Migration, Backup, Restore
        Author: Chrissy LeMaire (@cl), netnerds.net
 
        Website: https://dbatools.io
        Copyright: (c) 2018 by dbatools, licensed under MIT
        License: MIT https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT
 
        Requires: sysadmin access on SQL Servers
 
        Limitations:
        - Doesn't cover what it doesn't cover (replication, certificates, etc)
        - SQL Server 2000 databases cannot be directly migrated to SQL Server 2012 and above.
        - Logins within SQL Server 2012 and above logins cannot be migrated to SQL Server 2008 R2 and below.
 
    .LINK
        https://dbatools.io/Copy-DbaDatabase
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> Copy-DbaDatabase -Source sql2014a -Destination sql2014b -Database TestDB -BackupRestore -SharedPath \\fileshare\sql\migration
 
        Migrates a single user database TestDB using Backup and restore from instance sql2014a to sql2014b. Backup files are stored in \\fileshare\sql\migration.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> Copy-DbaDatabase -Source sql2012 -Destination sql2014, sql2016 -DetachAttach -Reattach
 
        Databases will be migrated from sql2012 to both sql2014 and sql2016 using the detach/copy files/attach method.The following will be performed: kick all users out of the database, detach all data/log files, move files across the network over an admin share (\\SqlSERVER\M$\MSSql...), attach file on destination server, reattach at source. If the database files (*.mdf, *.ndf, *.ldf) on *destination* exist and aren't in use, they will be overwritten.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> Copy-DbaDatabase -Source sql2014a -Destination sqlcluster, sql2016 -BackupRestore -UseLastBackup -Force
 
        Migrates all user databases to sqlcluster and sql2016 using the last Full, Diff and Log backups from sql204a. If the databases exists on the destinations, they will be dropped prior to attach.
 
        Note that the backups must exist in a location accessible by all destination servers, such a network share.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> Copy-DbaDatabase -Source sql2014a -Destination sqlcluster -ExcludeDatabase Northwind, pubs -IncludeSupportDbs -Force -BackupRestore -SharedPath \\fileshare\sql\migration
 
        Migrates all user databases except for Northwind and pubs by using backup/restore (copy-only). Backup files are stored in \\fileshare\sql\migration. If the database exists on the destination, it will be dropped prior to attach.
 
        It also includes the support databases (ReportServer, ReportServerTempDb, distribution).
 
    #>

    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName = "DbBackup", SupportsShouldProcess)]
    [Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessageAttribute("PSUseOutputTypeCorrectly", "", Justification = "PSSA Rule Ignored by BOH")]
    param (
        [DbaInstanceParameter]$Source,
        [PSCredential]$SourceSqlCredential,
        [parameter(Mandatory)]
        [DbaInstanceParameter[]]$Destination,
        [PSCredential]$DestinationSqlCredential,
        [Alias("Databases")]
        [object[]]$Database,
        [object[]]$ExcludeDatabase,
        [Alias("All")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbBackup")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbAttachDetach")]
        [switch]$AllDatabases,
        [parameter(Mandatory, ParameterSetName = "DbBackup")]
        [switch]$BackupRestore,
        [Alias("NetworkShare")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbBackup",
            HelpMessage = "Specify a valid network share in the format \\server\share that can be accessed by your account and the SQL Server service accounts for both Source and Destination.")]
        [string]$SharedPath,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbBackup")]
        [switch]$WithReplace,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbBackup")]
        [switch]$NoRecovery,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbBackup")]
        [switch]$NoBackupCleanup,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbBackup")]
        [ValidateRange(1, 64)]
        [int]$NumberFiles = 3,
        [parameter(Mandatory, ParameterSetName = "DbAttachDetach")]
        [switch]$DetachAttach,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbAttachDetach")]
        [switch]$Reattach,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbBackup")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbAttachDetach")]
        [switch]$SetSourceReadOnly,
        [Alias("ReuseFolderStructure")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbBackup")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbAttachDetach")]
        [switch]$ReuseSourceFolderStructure,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbBackup")]
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbAttachDetach")]
        [switch]$IncludeSupportDbs,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbBackup")]
        [switch]$UseLastBackup,
        [parameter(ParameterSetName = "DbBackup")]
        [switch]$Continue,
        [parameter(ValueFromPipeline)]
        [Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Database[]]$InputObject,
        [switch]$NoCopyOnly,
        [switch]$SetSourceOffline,
        [string]$NewName,
        [string]$Prefix,
        [switch]$Force,
        [switch]$EnableException
    )
    begin {
        Test-DbaDeprecation -DeprecatedOn 1.0.0 -Parameter NetworkShare -CustomMessage "Using the parameter NetworkShare is deprecated. This parameter will be removed in version 1.0.0 or before. Use SharedPath instead."

        $CopyOnly = -not $NoCopyOnly

        if ($BackupRestore -and (-not $SharedPath -and -not $UseLastBackup)) {
            Stop-Function -Message "When using -BackupRestore, you must specify -SharedPath or -UseLastBackup"
            return
        }
        if ($SharedPath -and $UseLastBackup) {
            Stop-Function -Message "-SharedPath cannot be used with -UseLastBackup because the backup path is determined by the paths in the last backups"
            return
        }
        if ($DetachAttach -and -not $Reattach -and $Destination.Count -gt 1) {
            Stop-Function -Message "When using -DetachAttach with multiple servers, you must specify -Reattach to reattach database at source"
            return
        }
        if ($Continue -and -not $UseLastBackup) {
            Stop-Function -Message "-Continue cannot be used without -UseLastBackup"
            return
        }

        function Join-Path {
            <#
        An internal command that does not require the local path to exist
 
        Boo, this does not work, but keeping it for future ref.
        #>

            [CmdletBinding()]
            param (
                [string]$Path,
                [string]$ChildPath
            )
            process {
                try {
                    [IO.Path]::Combine($Path, $ChildPath)
                } catch {
                    "$Path\$ChildPath"
                }
            }
        }

        function Join-AdminUnc {
            <#
        .SYNOPSIS
        Internal function. Parses a path to make it an admin UNC.
        #>

            [CmdletBinding()]
            param (
                [Parameter(Mandatory)]
                [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
                [string]$servername,
                [Parameter(Mandatory)]
                [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
                [string]$filepath

            )

            if ($script:sameserver -or (-not $script:isWindows)) {
                return $filepath
            }
            if (-not $filepath) {
                return
            }
            if ($filepath.StartsWith("\\")) {
                return $filepath
            }

            $servername = $servername.Split("\")[0]

            if ($filepath -and $filepath -ne [System.DbNull]::Value) {
                $newpath = Join-Path "\\$servername\" $filepath.replace(':', '$')
                return $newpath
            } else {
                return
            }
        }

        function Get-SqlFileStructure {
            $dbcollection = @{
            };
            $databaseProgressbar = 0

            foreach ($db in $databaseList) {
                Write-Progress -Id 1 -Activity "Processing database file structure" -PercentComplete ($databaseProgressbar / $dbCount * 100) -Status "Processing $databaseProgressbar of $dbCount."
                $dbName = $db.Name
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message $dbName

                $databaseProgressbar++
                $dbStatus = $db.status.toString()
                if ($dbStatus.StartsWith("Normal") -eq $false) {
                    continue
                }
                $destinstancefiles = @{
                }; $sourcefiles = @{
                }

                $where = "Filetype <> 'LOG' and Filetype <> 'FULLTEXT'"

                $datarows = $dbFileTable.Tables.Select("dbname = '$dbName' and $where")

                # Data Files
                foreach ($file in $datarows) {
                    # Destination File Structure
                    $d = @{
                    }
                    if ($ReuseSourceFolderStructure) {
                        $d.physical = $file.filename
                    } elseif ($WithReplace) {
                        $name = $file.Name
                        $destfile = $remoteDbFileTable.Tables[0].Select("dbname = '$dbName' and name = '$name'")
                        $d.physical = $destfile.filename

                        if ($null -eq $d.physical) {
                            $directory = Get-SqlDefaultPaths $destServer data
                            $fileName = Split-Path $file.filename -Leaf
                            $d.physical = "$directory\$fileName"
                        }
                    } else {
                        $directory = Get-SqlDefaultPaths $destServer data
                        $fileName = Split-Path $file.filename -Leaf
                        $d.physical = "$directory\$fileName"
                    }
                    $d.logical = $file.Name

                    $d.remotefilename = Join-AdminUNC $destNetBios $d.physical
                    $destinstancefiles.add($file.Name, $d)

                    # Source File Structure
                    $s = @{
                    }
                    $s.logical = $file.Name
                    $s.physical = $file.filename
                    $s.remotefilename = Join-AdminUNC $sourceNetBios $s.physical
                    $sourcefiles.add($file.Name, $s)
                }

                # Add support for Full Text Catalogs in SQL Server 2005 and below
                if ($sourceServer.VersionMajor -lt 10) {
                    try {
                        $fttable = $null = $sourceServer.Databases[$dbName].ExecuteWithResults('sp_help_fulltext_catalogs')
                        $allrows = $fttable.Tables[0].rows
                    } catch {
                        # Nothing, it's just not enabled
                        # here to avoid an empty catch
                        $null = 1
                    }

                    foreach ($ftc in $allrows) {
                        # Destination File Structure
                        $d = @{
                        }
                        $pre = "sysft_"
                        $name = $ftc.Name
                        $physical = $ftc.Path # RootPath
                        $logical = "$pre$name"
                        if ($ReuseSourceFolderStructure) {
                            $d.physical = $physical
                        } else {
                            $directory = Get-SqlDefaultPaths $destServer data
                            if ($destServer.VersionMajor -lt 10) {
                                $directory = "$directory\FTDATA"
                            }
                            $fileName = Split-Path($physical) -leaf
                            $d.physical = "$directory\$fileName"
                        }
                        $d.logical = $logical
                        $d.remotefilename = Join-AdminUNC $destNetBios $d.physical
                        $destinstancefiles.add($logical, $d)

                        # Source File Structure
                        $s = @{
                        }
                        $pre = "sysft_"
                        $name = $ftc.Name
                        $physical = $ftc.Path # RootPath
                        $logical = "$pre$name"

                        $s.logical = $logical
                        $s.physical = $physical
                        $s.remotefilename = Join-AdminUNC $sourceNetBios $s.physical
                        $sourcefiles.add($logical, $s)
                    }
                }

                $where = "Filetype = 'LOG'"
                $datarows = $dbFileTable.Tables[0].Select("dbname = '$dbName' and $where")

                # Log Files
                foreach ($file in $datarows) {
                    $d = @{
                    }
                    if ($ReuseSourceFolderStructure) {
                        $d.physical = $file.filename
                    } elseif ($WithReplace) {
                        $name = $file.Name
                        $destfile = $remoteDbFileTable.Tables[0].Select("dbname = '$dbName' and name = '$name'")
                        $d.physical = $destfile.filename

                        if ($null -eq $d.physical) {
                            $directory = Get-SqlDefaultPaths $destServer data
                            $fileName = Split-Path $file.filename -Leaf
                            $d.physical = "$directory\$fileName"
                        }
                    } else {
                        $directory = Get-SqlDefaultPaths $destServer log
                        $fileName = Split-Path $file.filename -Leaf
                        $d.physical = "$directory\$fileName"
                    }
                    $d.logical = $file.Name
                    $d.remotefilename = Join-AdminUNC $destNetBios $d.physical
                    $destinstancefiles.add($file.Name, $d)

                    $s = @{
                    }
                    $s.logical = $file.Name
                    $s.physical = $file.filename
                    $s.remotefilename = Join-AdminUNC $sourceNetBios $s.physical
                    $sourcefiles.add($file.Name, $s)
                }

                $location = @{
                }
                $location.add("Destination", $destinstancefiles)
                $location.add("Source", $sourcefiles)
                $dbcollection.Add($($db.Name), $location)
            }

            $fileStructure = [pscustomobject]@{
                "databases" = $dbcollection
            }
            Write-Progress -id 1 -Activity "Processing database file structure" -Status "Completed" -Completed
            return $fileStructure
        }

        function Dismount-SqlDatabase {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param (
                [object]$server,
                [string]$dbName
            )

            $currentdb = $server.databases[$dbName]
            if ($currentdb.IsMirroringEnabled) {
                try {
                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Breaking mirror for $dbName"
                    $currentdb.ChangeMirroringState([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.MirroringOption]::Off)
                    $currentdb.Alter()
                    $currentdb.Refresh()
                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Could not break mirror for $dbName. Skipping."
                } catch {
                    Stop-Function -Message "Issue breaking mirror." -Target $dbName -ErrorRecord $_
                    return $false
                }
            }

            if ($currentdb.AvailabilityGroupName) {
                $agName = $currentdb.AvailabilityGroupName
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Attempting remove from Availability Group $agName."
                try {
                    $server.AvailabilityGroups[$currentdb.AvailabilityGroupName].AvailabilityDatabases[$dbName].Drop()
                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully removed $dbName from detach from $agName on $($server.Name)."
                } catch {
                    Stop-Function -Message "Could not remove $dbName from $agName on $($server.Name)." -Target $dbName -ErrorRecord $_
                    return $false
                }
            }

            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Attempting detach from $dbName from $source."

            ####### Using Sql to detach does not modify the $currentdb collection #######

            $server.KillAllProcesses($dbName)

            try {
                $sql = "ALTER DATABASE [$dbName] SET SINGLE_USER WITH ROLLBACK IMMEDIATE"
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message $sql
                $null = $server.Query($sql)
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully set $dbName to single-user from $source."
            } catch {
                Stop-Function -Message "Issue setting database to single-user." -Target $dbName -ErrorRecord $_
            }

            try {
                $sql = "EXEC master.dbo.sp_detach_db N'$dbName'"
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message $sql
                $null = $server.Query($sql)
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully detached $dbName from $source."
                return $true
            } catch {
                Stop-Function -Message "Issue detaching database." -Target $dbName -ErrorRecord $_
                return $false
            }
        }

        function Mount-SqlDatabase {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param (
                [object]$server,
                [string]$dbName,
                [object]$fileStructure,
                [string]$dbOwner
            )

            if ($null -eq $server.Logins.Item($dbOwner)) {
                try {
                    $dbOwner = ($destServer.logins | Where-Object {
                            $_.id -eq 1
                        }).Name
                } catch {
                    $dbOwner = "sa"
                }
            }
            try {
                $null = $server.AttachDatabase($dbName, $fileStructure, $dbOwner, [Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.AttachOptions]::None)
                return $true
            } catch {
                Stop-Function -Message "Issue mounting database." -ErrorRecord $_
                return $false
            }
        }

        function Start-SqlFileTransfer {
            <#
 
            SYNOPSIS
            Internal function. Uses BITS to transfer detached files (.mdf, .ndf, .ldf, and filegroups) to
            another server over admin UNC paths. Locations of data files are kept in the
            custom object generated by Get-SqlFileStructure
 
            #>

            [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess)]
            param (
                [object]$fileStructure,
                [string]$dbName
            )
            $filestructure
            $copydb = $fileStructure.databases[$dbName]
            $dbsource = $copydb.source
            $dbdestination = $copydb.destination

            foreach ($file in $dbsource.keys) {
                if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($file, "Starting Sql File Transfer")) {
                    $remotefilename = $dbdestination[$file].remotefilename
                    $from = $dbsource[$file].remotefilename
                    try {
                        if (Test-Path $from -pathtype container) {
                            $null = New-Item -ItemType Directory -Path $remotefilename -Force
                            Start-BitsTransfer -Source "$from\*.*" -Destination $remotefilename

                            $directories = (Get-ChildItem -recurse $from | Where-Object {
                                    $_.PsIsContainer
                                }).FullName
                            foreach ($directory in $directories) {
                                $newdirectory = $directory.replace($from, $remotefilename)
                                $null = New-Item -ItemType Directory -Path $newdirectory -Force
                                Start-BitsTransfer -Source "$directory\*.*" -Destination $newdirectory
                            }
                        } else {
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Copying $from for $dbName."
                            Start-BitsTransfer -Source $from -Destination $remotefilename
                        }
                    } catch {
                        try {
                            # Sometimes BITS trips out temporarily on cloned drives.
                            Start-BitsTransfer -Source $from -Destination $remotefilename
                        } catch {
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Start-BitsTransfer did not succeed. Now attempting with Copy-Item - no progress bar will be shown."
                            try {
                                Copy-Item -Path $from -Destination $remotefilename -ErrorAction Stop
                                $remotefilename
                            } catch {
                                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Access denied. This can happen for a number of reasons including issues with cloned disks."
                                Stop-Function -Message "Alternatively, you may need to run PowerShell as Administrator, especially when running on localhost." -Target $from -ErrorRecord $_
                                return
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
            return $true
        }

        function Start-SqlDetachAttach {
            <#
 
            .SYNOPSIS
            Internal function. Performs checks, then executes Dismount-SqlDatabase on a database, copies its files to the new server, then performs Mount-SqlDatabase. $sourceServer and $destServer are SMO server objects.
 
            $fileStructure is a custom object generated by Get-SqlFileStructure
 
            #>

            [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess)]
            param (
                [object]$sourceServer,
                [object]$destServer,
                [object]$fileStructure,
                [string]$dbName
            )
            if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($dbname, "Starting detaching and re-attaching from $sourceServer to $destServer")) {
                $destfilestructure = New-Object System.Collections.Specialized.StringCollection
                $sourceFileStructure = New-Object System.Collections.Specialized.StringCollection
                $dbOwner = $sourceServer.databases[$dbName].owner
                $destDbName = $fileStructure.databases[$dbName].destinationDbName

                if ($null -eq $dbOwner) {
                    try {
                        $dbOwner = ($destServer.logins | Where-Object {
                                $_.id -eq 1
                            }).Name
                    } catch {
                        $dbOwner = "sa"
                    }
                }

                foreach ($file in $fileStructure.databases[$dbName].destination.values) {
                    $null = $destfilestructure.add($file.physical)
                }
                foreach ($file in $fileStructure.databases[$dbName].source.values) {
                    $null = $sourceFileStructure.add($file.physical)
                }

                $detachresult = Dismount-SqlDatabase $sourceServer $dbName

                if ($detachresult) {

                    $transfer = Start-SqlFileTransfer $fileStructure $dbName
                    if ($transfer -eq $false) {
                        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Could not copy files."
                        return "Could not copy files."
                    }
                    $attachresult = Mount-SqlDatabase $destServer $destDbName $destfilestructure $dbOwner

                    if ($attachresult -eq $true) {
                        # add to added dbs because ATTACH was successful
                        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully attached $dbName to $destinstance."
                        return $true
                    } else {
                        # add to failed because ATTACH was unsuccessful
                        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Could not attach $dbName."
                        return "Could not attach database."
                    }
                } else {
                    # add to failed because DETACH was unsuccessful
                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Could not detach $dbName."
                    return "Could not detach database."
                }
            }
        }
        $backupCollection = @()
    }
    process {
        if (Test-FunctionInterrupt) {
            return
        }

        # testing twice for whatif reasons
        if ($BackupRestore -and (-not $SharedPath -and -not $UseLastBackup)) {
            Stop-Function -Message "When using -BackupRestore, you must specify -SharedPath or -UseLastBackup"
            return
        }
        if ($SharedPath -and $UseLastBackup) {
            Stop-Function -Message "-SharedPath cannot be used with -UseLastBackup because the backup path is determined by the paths in the last backups"
            return
        }
        if ($DetachAttach -and -not $Reattach -and $Destination.Count -gt 1) {
            Stop-Function -Message "When using -DetachAttach with multiple servers, you must specify -Reattach to reattach database at source"
            return
        }
        if (($AllDatabases -or $IncludeSupportDbs -or $Database) -and !$DetachAttach -and !$BackupRestore) {
            Stop-Function -Message "You must specify -DetachAttach or -BackupRestore when migrating databases."
            return
        }

        if (-not $AllDatabases -and -not $IncludeSupportDbs -and -not $Database -and -not $InputObject) {
            Stop-Function -Message "You must specify a -AllDatabases or -Database to continue."
            return
        }

        if ((Test-Bound 'NewName') -and (Test-Bound 'Prefix')) {
            Stop-Function -Message "NewName and Prefix are exclusive options, cannot specify both"
            return
        }

        if ($InputObject) {
            $Source = $InputObject[0].Parent
            $Database = $InputObject.Name
        }


        if ($Database -contains "master" -or $Database -contains "msdb" -or $Database -contains "tempdb") {
            Stop-Function -Message "Migrating system databases is not currently supported." -Continue
        }

        try {
            $sourceServer = Connect-SqlInstance -SqlInstance $Source -SqlCredential $SourceSqlCredential
        } catch {
            Stop-Function -Message "Error occured while establishing connection to $instance" -Category ConnectionError -ErrorRecord $_ -Target $Source
            return
        }

        Invoke-SmoCheck -SqlInstance $sourceServer
        $sourceNetBios = $sourceServer.ComputerName

        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Ensuring user databases exist (counting databases)."

        if ($sourceserver.Databases.IsSystemObject -notcontains $false) {
            Stop-Function -Message "No user databases to migrate"
            return
        }

        foreach ($destinstance in $Destination) {
            try {
                $destServer = Connect-SqlInstance -SqlInstance $destinstance -SqlCredential $DestinationSqlCredential
            } catch {
                Stop-Function -Message "Error occured while establishing connection to $instance" -Category ConnectionError -ErrorRecord $_ -Target $destinstance -Continue
            }

            if ($sourceServer.ComputerName -eq $destServer.ComputerName) {
                $script:sameserver = $true
            } else {
                $script:sameserver = $false
            }

            if ($script:sameserver -and $DetachAttach) {
                if (-not (Test-ElevationRequirement -ComputerName $sourceServer)) {
                    return
                }
            }

            $destVersionLower = $destServer.VersionMajor -lt $sourceServer.VersionMajor
            $destVersionMinorLow = ($destServer.VersionMajor -eq 10 -and $sourceServer.VersionMajor -eq 10) -and ($destServer.VersionMinor -lt $sourceServer.VersionMinor)

            if ($destVersionLower -or $destVersionMinorLow) {
                Stop-Function -Message "Error: copy database cannot be made from newer $($sourceServer.VersionString) to older $($destServer.VersionString) SQL Server version."
                return
            }

            if ($DetachAttach) {
                if ($sourceServer.ComputerName -eq $env:COMPUTERNAME -or $destServer.ComputerName -eq $env:COMPUTERNAME) {
                    if (-not ([Security.Principal.WindowsPrincipal][Security.Principal.WindowsIdentity]::GetCurrent()).IsInRole([Security.Principal.WindowsBuiltInRole] "Administrator")) {
                        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "When running DetachAttach locally on the console, it's possible you'll need to Run As Administrator. Trying anyway."
                    }
                }
            }

            if ($SharedPath) {
                if ($(Test-DbaPath -SqlInstance $sourceServer -Path $SharedPath) -eq $false) {
                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "$Source may not be able to access $SharedPath. Trying anyway."
                }

                if ($(Test-DbaPath -SqlInstance $destServer -Path $SharedPath) -eq $false) {
                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "$destinstance may not be able to access $SharedPath. Trying anyway."
                }

                if ($SharedPath.StartsWith('\\')) {
                    try {
                        $shareServer = ($SharedPath -split "\\")[2]
                        $hostEntry = ([Net.Dns]::GetHostEntry($shareServer)).HostName -split "\."

                        if ($shareServer -ne $hostEntry[0]) {
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Using CNAME records for the network share may present an issue if an SPN has not been created. Trying anyway. If it doesn't work, use a different (A record) hostname."
                        }
                    } catch {
                        Stop-Function -Message "Error validating unc path: $_"
                        return
                    }
                }
            }

            $destNetBios = $destserver.ComputerName

            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Performing SMO version check."
            Invoke-SmoCheck -SqlInstance $destServer

            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Checking to ensure the source isn't the same as the destination."
            if ($source -eq $destinstance) {
                Stop-Function -Message "Source and Destination SQL Servers instances are the same. Quitting." -Continue
            }

            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Checking to ensure server is not SQL Server 7 or below."
            if ($sourceServer.VersionMajor -lt 8 -and $destServer.VersionMajor -lt 8) {
                Stop-Function -Message "This script can only be run on SQL Server 2000 and above. Quitting." -Continue
            }

            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Checking to ensure detach/attach is not attempted on SQL Server 2000."
            if ($destServer.VersionMajor -lt 9 -and $DetachAttach) {
                Stop-Function -Message "Detach/Attach not supported when destination SQL Server is version 2000. Quitting." -Target $destServer -Continue
            }

            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Checking to ensure SQL Server 2000 migration isn't directly attempted to SQL Server 2012."
            if ($sourceServer.VersionMajor -lt 9 -and $destServer.VersionMajor -gt 10) {
                Stop-Function -Message "SQL Server 2000 databases cannot be migrated to SQL Server versions 2012 and above. Quitting." -Target $destServer -Continue
            }

            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Warning if migration from 2005 to 2012 and above and attach/detach is used."
            if ($sourceServer.VersionMajor -eq 9 -and $destServer.VersionMajor -gt 9 -and !$BackupRestore -and !$Force -and $DetachAttach) {
                Stop-Function -Message "Backup and restore is the safest method for migrating from SQL Server 2005 to other SQL Server versions. Please use the -BackupRestore switch or override this requirement by specifying -Force." -Continue
            }

            if ($sourceServer.Collation -ne $destServer.Collation) {
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Warning on different collation."
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Collation on $Source, $($sourceServer.Collation) differs from the $destinstance, $($destServer.Collation)."
            }

            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Ensuring destination server version is equal to or greater than source."
            if ($sourceServer.VersionMajor -ge $destServer.VersionMajor) {
                if ($sourceServer.VersionMinor -gt $destServer.VersionMinor) {
                    Stop-Function -Message "Source SQL Server version build must be <= destination SQL Server for database migration." -Continue
                }
            }

            # SMO's filestreamlevel is sometimes null
            $sql = "select coalesce(SERVERPROPERTY('FilestreamConfiguredLevel'),0) as fs"
            $sourceFilestream = $sourceServer.ConnectionContext.ExecuteScalar($sql)
            $destFilestream = $destServer.ConnectionContext.ExecuteScalar($sql)
            if ($sourceFilestream -gt 0 -and $destFilestream -eq 0) {
                $fsWarning = $true
            }

            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Writing warning about filestream being enabled."
            if ($fsWarning) {
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "FILESTREAM enabled on $source but not $destinstance. Databases that use FILESTREAM will be skipped."
            }

            if ($DetachAttach -eq $true) {
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Checking access to remote directories."
                $remoteSourcePath = Join-AdminUNC $sourceNetBios (Get-SqlDefaultPaths -SqlInstance $sourceServer -filetype data)

                if ((Test-Path $remoteSourcePath) -ne $true -and $DetachAttach) {
                    Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Can't access remote Sql directories on $source which is required to perform detach/copy/attach."
                    Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "You can manually try accessing $remoteSourcePath to diagnose any issues."
                    Stop-Function -Message "Halting database migration"
                    return
                }

                $remoteDestPath = Join-AdminUNC $destNetBios (Get-SqlDefaultPaths -SqlInstance $destServer -filetype data)
                If ((Test-Path $remoteDestPath) -ne $true -and $DetachAttach) {
                    Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Can't access remote Sql directories on $destinstance which is required to perform detach/copy/attach."
                    Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "You can manually try accessing $remoteDestPath to diagnose any issues."
                    Stop-Function -Message "Halting database migration" -Continue
                }
            }

            if (($Database -or $ExcludeDatabase -or $IncludeSupportDbs) -and (!$DetachAttach -and !$BackupRestore)) {
                Stop-Function -Message "You did not select a migration method. Please use -BackupRestore or -DetachAttach."
                return
            }

            if ((!$Database -and !$AllDatabases -and !$IncludeSupportDbs) -and ($DetachAttach -or $BackupRestore)) {
                Stop-Function -Message "You did not select any databases to migrate. Please use -AllDatabases or -Database or -IncludeSupportDbs."
                return
            }

            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Building database list."
            $databaseList = New-Object System.Collections.ArrayList
            $SupportDBs = "ReportServer", "ReportServerTempDB", "distribution"
            foreach ($currentdb in ($sourceServer.Databases | Where-Object IsAccessible)) {
                $dbName = $currentdb.Name
                $dbOwner = $currentdb.Owner

                if ($currentdb.Id -le 4) {
                    continue
                }
                if ($Database -and $Database -notcontains $dbName) {
                    continue
                }
                if ($IncludeSupportDBs -eq $false -and $SupportDBs -contains $dbName) {
                    continue
                }
                if ($IncludeSupportDBs -eq $true -and $SupportDBs -notcontains $dbName) {
                    if ($AllDatabases -eq $false -and $Database.length -eq 0) {
                        continue
                    }
                }
                $null = $databaseList.Add($currentdb)
            }

            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Performing count."
            $dbCount = $databaseList.Count

            if ((Test-Bound 'NewName') -and $dbCount -gt 1) {
                Stop-Function -Message "Cannot use NewName when copying multiple databases"
                return
            }


            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Building file structure inventory for $dbCount databases."

            if ($sourceServer.VersionMajor -eq 8) {
                $sql = "select DB_NAME (dbid) as dbname, name, filename, CASE WHEN groupid = 0 THEN 'LOG' ELSE 'ROWS' END as filetype from sysaltfiles"
            } else {
                $sql = "SELECT db.Name AS dbname, type_desc AS FileType, mf.Name, Physical_Name AS filename FROM sys.master_files mf INNER JOIN sys.databases db ON db.database_id = mf.database_id"
            }

            $dbFileTable = $sourceServer.Databases['master'].ExecuteWithResults($sql)

            if ($destServer.VersionMajor -eq 8) {
                $sql = "select DB_NAME (dbid) as dbname, name, filename, CASE WHEN groupid = 0 THEN 'LOG' ELSE 'ROWS' END as filetype from sysaltfiles"
            } else {
                $sql = "SELECT db.Name AS dbname, type_desc AS FileType, mf.Name, Physical_Name AS filename FROM sys.master_files mf INNER JOIN sys.databases db ON db.database_id = mf.database_id"
            }

            $remoteDbFileTable = $destServer.Databases['master'].ExecuteWithResults($sql)

            $fileStructure = Get-SqlFileStructure -sourceserver $sourceServer -destserver $destServer -databaselist $databaseList -ReuseSourceFolderStructure $ReuseSourceFolderStructure

            $elapsed = [System.Diagnostics.Stopwatch]::StartNew()
            $started = Get-Date
            $script:TimeNow = (Get-Date -UFormat "%m%d%Y%H%M%S")

            if ($AllDatabases -or $ExcludeDatabase -or $IncludeSupportDbs -or $Database) {
                foreach ($currentdb in $databaseList) {
                    $dbName = $currentdb.Name
                    $dbOwner = $currentdb.Owner
                    $destinationDbName = $dbName
                    if ((Test-Bound "NewName")) {
                        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "NewName specified, copying $dbname as $NewName"
                        $destinationDbName = $NewName
                        $replaceInFile = $True
                    }
                    if ($(Test-Bound "Prefix")) {
                        $destinationDbName = $prefix + $destinationDbName
                        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Prefix supplied, copying $dbname as $destinationDbName"
                    }

                    $filestructure.databases[$dbname].Add('destinationDbName', $destinationDbName)
                    ForEach ($key in $filestructure.databases[$dbname].Destination.Keys) {
                        $splitFileName = Split-Path $fileStructure.databases[$dbname].Destination[$key].remotefilename -Leaf
                        $SplitPath = Split-Path $fileStructure.databases[$dbname].Destination[$key].remotefilename
                        if ($replaceInFile) {
                            $splitFileName = $splitFileName.replace($dbname, $destinationDbName)
                        }
                        $splitFileName = $prefix + $splitFileName
                        $filestructure.databases[$dbname].Destination.$key.remotefilename = Join-Path $SplitPath $splitFileName
                        $splitFileName = Split-Path $filestructure.databases[$dbname].Destination[$key].physical -Leaf
                        $SplitPath = Split-Path $fileStructure.databases[$dbname].Destination[$key].physical
                        if ($replaceInFile) {
                            $splitFileName = $splitFileName.replace($dbname, $destinationDbName)
                        }
                        $splitFileName = $prefix + $splitFileName
                        $filestructure.databases[$dbname].Destination.$key.physical = Join-Path $SplitPath $splitFileName
                    }

                    $copyDatabaseStatus = [pscustomobject]@{
                        SourceServer        = $sourceServer.Name
                        DestinationServer   = $destServer.Name
                        Name                = $dbName
                        DestinationDatabase = $DestinationDbname
                        Type                = "Database"
                        Status              = $null
                        Notes               = $null
                        DateTime            = [DbaDateTime](Get-Date)
                    }

                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "`n######### Database: $dbName #########"
                    $dbStart = Get-Date

                    if ($ExcludeDatabase -contains $dbName) {
                        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "$dbName excluded. Skipping."
                        continue
                    }

                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Checking for accessibility."
                    if ($currentdb.IsAccessible -eq $false) {
                        if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "Skipping $dbName. Database is inaccessible.")) {
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Skipping $dbName. Database is inaccessible."

                            $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Skipped"
                            $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "Database is not accessible"
                            $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                        }
                        continue
                    }

                    if ($fsWarning) {
                        $fsRows = $dbFileTable.Tables[0].Select("dbname = '$dbName' and FileType = 'FileStream'")

                        if ($fsRows.Count -gt 0) {
                            if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "Skipping $dbName (contains FILESTREAM).")) {
                                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Skipping $dbName (contains FILESTREAM)."
                                $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Skipped"
                                $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "Contains FILESTREAM"
                                $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                            }
                            continue
                        }
                    }

                    if ($ReuseSourceFolderStructure) {
                        $fgRows = $dbFileTable.Tables[0].Select("dbname = '$dbName' and FileType = 'ROWS'")[0]
                        $remotePath = Split-Path $fgRows.Filename

                        if (!(Test-DbaPath -SqlInstance $destServer -Path $remotePath)) {
                            if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "$remotePath does not exist on $destinstance and ReuseSourceFolderStructure was specified")) {
                                # Stop-Function -Message "Cannot resolve $remotePath on $source. `n`nYou have specified ReuseSourceFolderStructure and exact folder structure does not exist. Halting script."
                                $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Failed"
                                $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "$remotePath does not exist on $destinstance and ReuseSourceFolderStructure was specified" #"Can't resolve $remotePath"
                                $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                            }
                            continue
                        }
                    }

                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Checking Availability Group status."
                    if ($currentdb.AvailabilityGroupName -and !$force -and $DetachAttach) {
                        $agName = $currentdb.AvailabilityGroupName
                        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Database is part of an Availability Group ($agName). Use -Force to drop from $agName and migrate. Alternatively, you can use the safer backup/restore method."
                        continue
                    }

                    $dbStatus = $currentdb.Status.ToString()

                    if ($dbStatus.StartsWith("Normal") -eq $false) {
                        if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "$dbName is not in a Normal state. Skipping.")) {
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "$dbName is not in a Normal state. Skipping."

                            $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Skipped"
                            $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "Not in normal state"
                            $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                        }
                        continue
                    }

                    if ($currentdb.ReplicationOptions -ne "None" -and $DetachAttach -eq $true) {
                        if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "$dbName is part of replication. Skipping.")) {
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "$dbName is part of replication. Skipping."

                            $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Skipped"
                            $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "Part of replication"
                            $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                        }
                        continue
                    }

                    if ($currentdb.IsMirroringEnabled -and !$force -and $DetachAttach) {
                        if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "Database is being mirrored. Use -Force to break mirror and migrate. Alternatively, you can use the safer backup/restore method.")) {
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Database is being mirrored. Use -Force to break mirror and migrate. Alternatively, you can use the safer backup/restore method."

                            $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Skipped"
                            $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "Database is mirrored"
                            $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                        }

                        continue
                    }

                    if (($null -ne $destServer.Databases[$DestinationdbName]) -and !$force -and !$WithReplace) {
                        if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "$DestinationdbName exists at destination. Use -Force to drop and migrate. Aborting routine for this database.")) {
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "$DestinationdbName exists at destination. Use -Force to drop and migrate. Aborting routine for this database."

                            $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Skipped"
                            $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "Already exists on destination"
                            $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                        }
                        continue
                    } elseif ($null -ne $destServer.Databases[$DestinationdbName] -and $force) {
                        if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "DROP DATABASE $DestinationdbName")) {
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "$DestinationdbName already exists. -Force was specified. Dropping $DestinationdbName on $destinstance."
                            $removeresult = Remove-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance $destserver -Database $DestinationdbName -Confirm:$false
                            $dropResult = $removeresult.Status -eq 'Dropped'

                            if ($dropResult -eq $false) {
                                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Database could not be dropped. Aborting routine for this database."

                                $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Failed"
                                $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "Could not drop database"
                                $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                                continue
                            }
                        }
                    }

                    if ($force) {
                        $WithReplace = $true
                    }

                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Started: $dbStart."

                    if ($sourceServer.VersionMajor -ge 9) {
                        $sourceDbOwnerChaining = $sourceServer.Databases[$dbName].DatabaseOwnershipChaining
                        $sourceDbTrustworthy = $sourceServer.Databases[$dbName].Trustworthy
                        $sourceDbBrokerEnabled = $sourceServer.Databases[$dbName].BrokerEnabled
                    }

                    $sourceDbReadOnly = $sourceServer.Databases[$dbName].ReadOnly

                    if ($SetSourceReadOnly) {
                        If ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($source, "Set $dbName to read-only")) {
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Setting database to read-only."
                            try {
                                $result = Set-DbaDbState -SqlInstance $sourceServer -Database $dbName -ReadOnly -EnableException -Force:$Force
                            } catch {
                                Stop-Function -Continue -Message "Couldn't set database to read-only. Aborting routine for this database" -ErrorRecord $_
                            }
                        }
                    }

                    if ($BackupRestore) {
                        if ($UseLastBackup) {
                            $whatifmsg = "Gathering last backup information for $dbName from $Source and restoring"
                        } else {
                            $whatifmsg = "Backup $dbName from $source and restoring"
                        }
                        If ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, $whatifmsg)) {
                            if ($UseLastBackup) {
                                $backupTmpResult = Get-DbaBackupHistory -SqlInstance $sourceServer -Database $dbName -IncludeCopyOnly -Last
                                if (-not $backupTmpResult) {
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Type = "Database (BackupRestore)"
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Failed"
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "No backups for $dbName on $source"
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                                    continue
                                }
                            } else {
                                $backupTmpResult = $backupCollection | Where-Object Database -eq $dbName
                                if (-not $backupTmpResult) {
                                    $backupTmpResult = Backup-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance $sourceServer -Database $dbName -BackupDirectory $SharedPath -FileCount $numberfiles -CopyOnly:$CopyOnly
                                }
                                if ($backupTmpResult) {
                                    $backupCollection += $backupTmpResult
                                }
                                $backupResult = $BackupTmpResult.BackupComplete
                                if (-not $backupResult) {
                                    $serviceAccount = $sourceServer.ServiceAccount
                                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Backup Failed. Does SQL Server account $serviceAccount have access to $($SharedPath)? Aborting routine for this database."

                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Failed"
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "Backup failed. Verify service account access to $SharedPath."
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                                    continue
                                }
                            }
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Reuse = $ReuseSourceFolderStructure."
                            try {
                                $msg = $null
                                $restoreResultTmp = $backupTmpResult | Restore-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance $destServer -DatabaseName $DestinationdbName -ReuseSourceFolderStructure:$ReuseSourceFolderStructure -NoRecovery:$NoRecovery -TrustDbBackupHistory -WithReplace:$WithReplace -Continue:$Continue -EnableException -ReplaceDbNameInFile
                            } catch {
                                $msg = $_.Exception.InnerException.InnerException.InnerException.InnerException.Message
                                Stop-Function -Message "Failure attempting to restore $dbName to $destinstance" -Exception $_.Exception.InnerException.InnerException.InnerException.InnerException
                            }
                            $restoreResult = $restoreResultTmp.RestoreComplete

                            if ($restoreResult -eq $true) {
                                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully restored $dbName to $destinstance."
                                $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Successful"
                                $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                            } else {
                                if ($ReuseSourceFolderStructure) {
                                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Failed to restore $dbName to $destinstance. You specified -ReuseSourceFolderStructure. Does the exact same destination directory structure exist?"
                                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Aborting routine for this database."

                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Failed"
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "Failed to restore. ReuseSourceFolderStructure was specified, verify same directory structure exist on destination."
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                                    continue
                                } else {
                                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Failed to restore $dbName to $destinstance. Aborting routine for this database."

                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Failed"
                                    if (-not $msg) {
                                        $msg = "Failed to restore database"
                                    }
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = $msg
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                                    continue
                                }
                            }
                            if (-not $NoBackupCleanUp -and $Destination.Count -eq 1) {
                                foreach ($backupFile in ($backupTmpResult.BackupPath)) {
                                    try {
                                        if (Test-Path $backupFile -ErrorAction Stop) {
                                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Deleting $backupFile."
                                            Remove-Item $backupFile -ErrorAction Stop
                                        }
                                    } catch {
                                        try {
                                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Trying alternate SQL method to delete $backupFile."
                                            $sql = "EXEC master.sys.xp_delete_file 0, '$backupFile'"
                                            Write-Message -Level Debug -Message $sql
                                            $null = $sourceServer.Query($sql)
                                        } catch {
                                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Cannot delete backup file $backupFile."

                                            # Set NoBackupCleanup so that there's a warning at the end
                                            $NoBackupCleanup = $true
                                        }
                                    }
                                }
                            }
                        }

                        $dbFinish = Get-Date
                        if ($NoRecovery -eq $false) {
                            # needed because the newly restored database doesn't show up
                            $destServer.Databases.Refresh()
                            $dbOwner = $sourceServer.Databases[$dbName].Owner
                            if ($null -eq $dbOwner -or $destServer.Logins.Name -notcontains $dbOwner) {
                                $dbOwner = Get-SaLoginName -SqlInstance $destServer
                            }
                            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Updating database owner to $dbOwner."
                            $OwnerResult = Set-DbaDbOwner -SqlInstance $destServer -Database $dbName -TargetLogin $dbOwner -EnableException
                            if ($OwnerResult.Length -eq 0) {
                                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Failed to update database owner."
                            }
                        }
                    }

                    if ($DetachAttach) {

                        $copyDatabaseStatus.Type = "Database (DetachAttach)"

                        $sourceFileStructure = New-Object System.Collections.Specialized.StringCollection
                        foreach ($file in $fileStructure.Databases[$dbName].Source.Values) {
                            $null = $sourceFileStructure.Add($file.Physical)
                        }

                        $dbOwner = $sourceServer.Databases[$dbName].Owner

                        if ($null -eq $dbOwner -or $destServer.Logins.Name -notcontains $dbOwner) {
                            $dbOwner = Get-SaLoginName -SqlInstance $destServer
                        }

                        if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "Detach $dbName from $source and attach, then update dbowner")) {
                            $migrationResult = Start-SqlDetachAttach $sourceServer $destServer $fileStructure $dbName

                            $dbFinish = Get-Date

                            if ($reattach -eq $true) {
                                $sourceServer.Databases.Refresh()
                                $destServer.Databases.Refresh()
                                $result = Mount-SqlDatabase $sourceServer $dbName $sourceFileStructure $dbOwner

                                if ($result -eq $true) {
                                    $sourceServer.Databases[$dbName].DatabaseOwnershipChaining = $sourceDbOwnerChaining
                                    $sourceServer.Databases[$dbName].Trustworthy = $sourceDbTrustworthy
                                    $sourceServer.Databases[$dbName].BrokerEnabled = $sourceDbBrokerEnabled
                                    $sourceServer.Databases[$dbName].Alter()

                                    if ($SetSourceReadOnly -or $sourceDbReadOnly) {
                                        try {
                                            $result = Set-DbaDbState -SqlInstance $sourceServer -Database $dbName -ReadOnly -EnableException
                                        } catch {
                                            Stop-Function -Message "Couldn't set database to read-only" -ErrorRecord $_
                                        }
                                    }
                                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully reattached $dbName to $source."
                                } else {
                                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Could not reattach $dbName to $source."
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Failed"
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "Could not reattach database to $source"
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                                }
                            }

                            if ($migrationResult -eq $true) {
                                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully attached $dbName to $destinstance."
                                $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Successful"
                                $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                            } else {
                                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Failed to attach $dbName to $destinstance. Aborting routine for this database."

                                $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Failed"
                                $copyDatabaseStatus.Notes = "Failed to attach database to destination"
                                $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject

                                continue
                            }
                        }
                    }
                    $NewDatabase = Get-DbaDatabase -SqlInstance $destServer -database $DestinationdbName

                    # restore potentially lost settings
                    if ($destServer.VersionMajor -ge 9 -and $NoRecovery -eq $false) {
                        if ($sourceDbOwnerChaining -ne $NewDatabase.DatabaseOwnershipChaining) {
                            if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "Updating DatabaseOwnershipChaining on $DestinationdbName")) {
                                try {
                                    $NewDatabase.DatabaseOwnershipChaining = $sourceDbOwnerChaining
                                    $NewDatabase.Alter()
                                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully updated DatabaseOwnershipChaining for $sourceDbOwnerChaining on $DestinationdbName on $destinstance."
                                } catch {
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Successful - failed to apply DatabaseOwnershipChaining."
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                                    Stop-Function -Message "Failed to update DatabaseOwnershipChaining for $sourceDbOwnerChaining on $DestinationdbName on $destinstance." -Target $destinstance -ErrorRecord $_ -Continue
                                }
                            }
                        }

                        if ($sourceDbTrustworthy -ne $NewDatabase.Trustworthy) {
                            if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "Updating Trustworthy on $DestinationdbName")) {
                                try {
                                    $NewDatabase.Trustworthy = $sourceDbTrustworthy
                                    $NewDatabase.Alter()
                                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully updated Trustworthy to $sourceDbTrustworthy for $DestinationdbName on $destinstance"
                                } catch {
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Successful - failed to apply Trustworthy"
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                                    Stop-Function -Message "Failed to update Trustworthy to $sourceDbTrustworthy for $DestinationdbName on $destinstance." -Target $destinstance -ErrorRecord $_ -Continue
                                }
                            }
                        }

                        if ($sourceDbBrokerEnabled -ne $NewDatabase.BrokerEnabled) {
                            if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "Updating BrokerEnabled on $dbName")) {
                                try {
                                    $NewDatabase.BrokerEnabled = $sourceDbBrokerEnabled
                                    $NewDatabase.Alter()
                                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Successfully updated BrokerEnabled to $sourceDbBrokerEnabled for $DestinationdbName on $destinstance."
                                } catch {
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Successful - failed to apply BrokerEnabled"
                                    $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                                    Stop-Function -Message "Failed to update BrokerEnabled to $sourceDbBrokerEnabled for $DestinationdbName on $destinstance." -Target $destinstance -ErrorRecord $_ -Continue
                                }
                            }
                        }
                    }

                    if ($sourceDbReadOnly -ne $NewDatabase.ReadOnly -and -not $NoRecovery) {
                        if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "Updating ReadOnly status on $DestinationdbName")) {
                            try {
                                if ($sourceDbReadOnly) {
                                    $result = Set-DbaDbState -SqlInstance $destserver -Database $DestinationdbName -ReadOnly -EnableException
                                } else {
                                    $result = Set-DbaDbState -SqlInstance $destserver -Database $DestinationdbName -ReadWrite -EnableException
                                }
                            } catch {
                                $copyDatabaseStatus.Status = "Successful - failed to apply ReadOnly."
                                $copyDatabaseStatus | Select-DefaultView -Property DateTime, SourceServer, DestinationServer, Name, Type, Status, Notes -TypeName MigrationObject
                                Stop-Function -Message "Failed to update ReadOnly status on $DestinationdbName." -Target $destinstance -ErrorRecord $_ -Continue
                            }
                        }
                    }

                    if ($SetSourceOffline -and $sourceServer.databases[$DestinationdbName].status -notlike '*offline*') {
                        if ($Pscmdlet.ShouldProcess($destinstance, "Setting $DestinationdbName offline on $source")) {
                            Stop-DbaProcess -SqlInstance $sourceServer -Database $DestinationdbName
                            Set-DbaDbState -SqlInstance $sourceServer -SqlCredential $SourceSqlCredential -database $DestinationdbName -Offline
                        }
                    }

                    $dbTotalTime = $dbFinish - $dbStart
                    $dbTotalTime = ($dbTotalTime.ToString().Split(".")[0])

                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Finished: $dbFinish."
                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Elapsed time: $dbTotalTime."

                } # end db by db processing
            }
        }
    }
    end {
        if (Test-FunctionInterrupt) {
            return
        }
        if (-not $NoBackupCleanUp -and $Destination.Count -gt 1) {
            foreach ($backupFile in ($backupCollection.BackupPath)) {
                try {
                    if (Test-Path $backupFile -ErrorAction Stop) {
                        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Deleting $backupFile."
                        Remove-Item $backupFile -ErrorAction Stop
                    }
                } catch {
                    try {
                        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Trying alternate SQL method to delete $backupFile."
                        $sql = "EXEC master.sys.xp_delete_file 0, '$backupFile'"
                        Write-Message -Level Debug -Message $sql
                        $null = $sourceServer.Query($sql)
                    } catch {
                        Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Cannot delete backup file $backupFile."
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        if (Test-FunctionInterrupt) {
            return
        }
        if ($null -ne $elapsed) {
            $totalTime = ($elapsed.Elapsed.toString().Split(".")[0])

            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "`nDatabase migration finished"
            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Migration started: $started"
            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Migration completed: $(Get-Date)"
            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Total Elapsed time: $totalTime"

            if ($SharedPath -and $NoBackupCleanup) {
                Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Backups still exist at $SharedPath."
            }
        } else {
            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "No work was done, as we stopped during setup phase"
        }
        Test-DbaDeprecation -DeprecatedOn "1.0.0" -EnableException:$false -Alias Copy-SqlDatabase
    }
}