functions/Connect-DbaInstance.ps1

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function Connect-DbaInstance {
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
        Creates a robust, reusable SQL Server object.
 
    .DESCRIPTION
        This command creates a robus, reusable sql server object.
 
        It is robust because it initializes properties that do not cause enumeration by default. It also supports both Windows and SQL Server authentication methods, and detects which to use based upon the provided credentials.
 
        By default, this command also sets the connection's ApplicationName property to "dbatools PowerShell module - dbatools.io - custom connection". If you're doing anything that requires profiling, you can look for this client name.
 
        Alternatively, you can pass in whichever client name you'd like using the -ClientName parameter. There are a ton of other parameters for you to explore as well.
 
        See https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.data.sqlclient.sqlconnection.connectionstring.aspx
        and https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.data.sqlclient.sqlconnectionstringbuilder.aspx,
        and https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.data.sqlclient.sqlconnection.aspx
 
        To execute SQL commands, you can use $server.ConnectionContext.ExecuteReader($sql) or $server.Databases['master'].ExecuteNonQuery($sql)
 
    .PARAMETER SqlInstance
        The target SQL Server instance or instances. This can be a collection and receive pipeline input to allow the function to be executed against multiple SQL Server instances.
 
    .PARAMETER SqlCredential
        Credential object used to connect to the SQL Server Instance as a different user. This can be a Windows or SQL Server account. Windows users are determined by the existence of a backslash, so if you are intending to use an alternative Windows connection instead of a SQL login, ensure it contains a backslash.
 
    .PARAMETER Database
        The database(s) to process. This list is auto-populated from the server.
 
    .PARAMETER AppendConnectionString
        Appends to the current connection string. Note that you cannot pass authentication information using this method. Use -SqlInstance and optionally -SqlCredential to set authentication information.
 
    .PARAMETER ApplicationIntent
        Declares the application workload type when connecting to a server.
 
        Valid values are "ReadOnly" and "ReadWrite".
 
    .PARAMETER BatchSeparator
        A string to separate groups of SQL statements being executed. By default, this is "GO".
 
    .PARAMETER ClientName
        By default, this command sets the client's ApplicationName property to "dbatools PowerShell module - dbatools.io - custom connection" if you're doing anything that requires profiling, you can look for this client name. Using -ClientName allows you to set your own custom client application name.
 
    .PARAMETER ConnectTimeout
        The length of time (in seconds) to wait for a connection to the server before terminating the attempt and generating an error.
 
        Valid values are integers between 0 and 2147483647.
 
        When opening a connection to a Azure SQL Database, set the connection timeout to 30 seconds.
 
    .PARAMETER EncryptConnection
        If this switch is enabled, SQL Server uses SSL encryption for all data sent between the client and server if the server has a certificate installed.
 
        For more information, see Connection String Syntax. https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/framework/data/adonet/connection-string-syntax
 
        Beginning in .NET Framework 4.5, when TrustServerCertificate is false and Encrypt is true, the server name (or IP address) in a SQL Server SSL certificate must exactly match the server name (or IP address) specified in the connection string. Otherwise, the connection attempt will fail. For information about support for certificates whose subject starts with a wildcard character (*), see Accepted wildcards used by server certificates for server authentication. https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/258858/accepted-wildcards-used-by-server-certificates-for-server-authenticati
 
    .PARAMETER FailoverPartner
        The name of the failover partner server where database mirroring is configured.
 
        If the value of this key is "" (an empty string), then Initial Catalog must be present in the connection string, and its value must not be "".
 
        The server name can be 128 characters or less.
 
        If you specify a failover partner but the failover partner server is not configured for database mirroring and the primary server (specified with the Server keyword) is not available, then the connection will fail.
 
        If you specify a failover partner and the primary server is not configured for database mirroring, the connection to the primary server (specified with the Server keyword) will succeed if the primary server is available.
 
    .PARAMETER LockTimeout
        Sets the time in seconds required for the connection to time out when the current transaction is locked.
 
    .PARAMETER MaxPoolSize
        Sets the maximum number of connections allowed in the connection pool for this specific connection string.
 
    .PARAMETER MinPoolSize
        Sets the minimum number of connections allowed in the connection pool for this specific connection string.
 
    .PARAMETER MultipleActiveResultSets
        If this switch is enabled, an application can maintain multiple active result sets (MARS).
 
        If this switch is not enabled, an application must process or cancel all result sets from one batch before it can execute any other batch on that connection.
 
    .PARAMETER MultiSubnetFailover
        If this switch is enabled, and your application is connecting to an AlwaysOn availability group (AG) on different subnets, detection of and connection to the currently active server will be faster. For more information about SqlClient support for Always On Availability Groups, see https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/framework/data/adonet/sql/sqlclient-support-for-high-availability-disaster-recovery
 
    .PARAMETER NetworkProtocol
        Explicitly sets the network protocol used to connect to the server.
 
        Valid values are "TcpIp","NamedPipes","Multiprotocol","AppleTalk","BanyanVines","Via","SharedMemory" and "NWLinkIpxSpx"
 
    .PARAMETER NonPooledConnection
        If this switch is enabled, a non-pooled connection will be requested.
 
    .PARAMETER PacketSize
        Sets the size in bytes of the network packets used to communicate with an instance of SQL Server. Must match at server.
 
    .PARAMETER PooledConnectionLifetime
        When a connection is returned to the pool, its creation time is compared with the current time and the connection is destroyed if that time span (in seconds) exceeds the value specified by Connection Lifetime. This is useful in clustered configurations to force load balancing between a running server and a server just brought online.
 
        A value of zero (0) causes pooled connections to have the maximum connection timeout.
 
    .PARAMETER SqlExecutionModes
        The SqlExecutionModes enumeration contains values that are used to specify whether the commands sent to the referenced connection to the server are executed immediately or saved in a buffer.
 
        Valid values include "CaptureSql", "ExecuteAndCaptureSql" and "ExecuteSql".
 
    .PARAMETER StatementTimeout
        Sets the number of seconds a statement is given to run before failing with a timeout error.
 
    .PARAMETER TrustServerCertificate
        When this switch is enabled, the channel will be encrypted while bypassing walking the certificate chain to validate trust.
 
    .PARAMETER WorkstationId
        Sets the name of the workstation connecting to SQL Server.
 
    .PARAMETER SqlConnectionOnly
        Instead of returning a rich SMO server object, this command will only return a SqlConnection object when setting this switch.
 
    .PARAMETER AzureUnsupported
        Terminate if Azure is detected but not supported
 
    .PARAMETER AzureDomain
 
        By default, this is set to database.windows.net
 
        In the event your AzureSqlDb is not on a database.windows.net domain, you can set a custom domain using the AzureDomain parameter.
        This tells Connect-DbaInstance to login to the database using the method that works best with Azure.
 
    .PARAMETER MinimumVersion
        Terminate if the target SQL Server instance version does not meet version requirements
 
    .PARAMETER AuthenticationType
        Basically used to force AD Universal with MFA Support when other types have been detected
 
    .PARAMETER Tenant
        The TenantId for an Azure Instance
 
    .PARAMETER Thumbprint
        Thumbprint for connections to Azure MSI
 
    .PARAMETER Store
        Store where the Azure MSI certificate is stored
 
    .PARAMETER DisableException
        By default in most of our commands, when something goes wrong we try to catch it, interpret it and give you a friendly warning message.
 
        This command, however, gifts you with "sea of red" exceptions, by default, because it is useful for advanced scripting.
 
        Using this switch turns our "nice by default" feature on which makes errors into pretty warnings.
 
    .NOTES
        Tags: Connect, Connection
        Author: Chrissy LeMaire (@cl), netnerds.net
 
        Website: https://dbatools.io
        Copyright: (c) 2018 by dbatools, licensed under MIT
        License: MIT https://opensource.org/licenses/MIT
 
    .LINK
        https://dbatools.io/Connect-DbaInstance
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance sql2014
 
        Creates an SMO Server object that connects using Windows Authentication
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $wincred = Get-Credential ad\sqladmin
        PS C:\> Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance sql2014 -SqlCredential $wincred
 
        Creates an SMO Server object that connects using alternative Windows credentials
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $sqlcred = Get-Credential sqladmin
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance sql2014 -SqlCredential $sqlcred
 
        Login to sql2014 as SQL login sqladmin.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance sql2014 -ClientName "my connection"
 
        Creates an SMO Server object that connects using Windows Authentication and uses the client name "my connection". So when you open up profiler or use extended events, you can search for "my connection".
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance sql2014 -AppendConnectionString "Packet Size=4096;AttachDbFilename=C:\MyFolder\MyDataFile.mdf;User Instance=true;"
 
        Creates an SMO Server object that connects to sql2014 using Windows Authentication, then it sets the packet size (this can also be done via -PacketSize) and other connection attributes.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance sql2014 -NetworkProtocol TcpIp -MultiSubnetFailover
 
        Creates an SMO Server object that connects using Windows Authentication that uses TCP/IP and has MultiSubnetFailover enabled.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance sql2016 -ApplicationIntent ReadOnly
 
        Connects with ReadOnly ApplicationIntent.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance myserver.database.windows.net -Database mydb -Credential me@mydomain.onmicrosoft.com -DisableException
        PS C:\> Invoke-Query -SqlInstance $server -Query "select 1 as test"
 
        Logs into Azure SQL DB using AAD / Azure Active Directory, then performs a sample query.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance psdbatools.database.windows.net -Database dbatools -DisableException
        PS C:\> Invoke-Query -SqlInstance $server -Query "select 1 as test"
 
        Logs into Azure SQL DB using AAD Integrated Auth, then performs a sample query.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance "myserver.public.cust123.database.windows.net,3342" -Database mydb -Credential me@mydomain.onmicrosoft.com -DisableException
        PS C:\> Invoke-Query -SqlInstance $server -Query "select 1 as test"
 
        Logs into Azure SQL Managed instance using AAD / Azure Active Directory, then performs a sample query.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance db.mycustomazure.com -Database mydb -AzureDomain mycustomazure.com -DisableException
        PS C:\> Invoke-Query -SqlInstance $server -Query "select 1 as test"
 
        In the event your AzureSqlDb is not on a database.windows.net domain, you can set a custom domain using the AzureDomain parameter.
        This tells Connect-DbaInstance to login to the database using the method that works best with Azure.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance -ConnectionString "Data Source=TCP:mydb.database.windows.net,1433;User ID=sqladmin;Password=adfasdf;MultipleActiveResultSets=False;Connect Timeout=30;Encrypt=True;TrustServerCertificate=False;"
        PS C:\> Invoke-Query -SqlInstance $server -Query "select 1 as test"
 
        Logs into Azure using a preconstructed connstring, then performs a sample query.
        ConnectionString is an alias of SqlInstance, so you can use -SqlInstance $connstring as well.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $cred = Get-Credential guid-app-id-here # appid for username, clientsecret for password
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance psdbatools.database.windows.net -Database abc -SqCredential $cred -Tenant guidheremaybename
        PS C:\> Invoke-Query -SqlInstance $server -Query "select 1 as test"
 
        When connecting from a non-Azure worksatation, logs into Azure using Universal with MFA Support with a username and password, then performs a sample query.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance psdbatools.database.windows.net -Database abc -AuthenticationType 'AD Universal with MFA Support'
        PS C:\> Invoke-Query -SqlInstance $server -Query "select 1 as test"
 
        When connecting from an Azure VM with .NET 4.7.2 and higher, logs into Azure using Universal with MFA Support, then performs a sample query.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $cred = Get-Credential guid-app-id-here # appid for username, clientsecret for password
        PS C:\> Set-DbatoolsConfig -FullName azure.tenantid -Value 'guidheremaybename' -Passthru | Register-DbatoolsConfig
        PS C:\> Set-DbatoolsConfig -FullName azure.appid -Value $cred.Username -Passthru | Register-DbatoolsConfig
        PS C:\> Set-DbatoolsConfig -FullName azure.clientsecret -Value $cred.Password -Passthru | Register-DbatoolsConfig # requires securestring
        PS C:\> Set-DbatoolsConfig -FullName sql.connection.database -Value abc -Passthru | Register-DbatoolsConfig
        PS C:\> Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance psdbatools.database.windows.net
 
        Permenently sets some app id config values. To set them temporarily (just for a session), remove -Passthru | Register-DbatoolsConfig
        When connecting from a non-Azure worksatation or an Azure VM without .NET 4.7.2 and higher, logs into Azure using Universal with MFA Support, then performs a sample query.
 
    .EXAMPLE
        PS C:\> $server = Connect-DbaInstance -SqlInstance psdbatools.database.windows.net -Thumbprint FF6361E82F21664F64A2576BB49EAC429BD5ABB6 -Store CurrentUser -Tenant tenant-guid -SqlCredential app-id-guid-here -Database abc
        PS C:\> Invoke-Query -SqlInstance $server -Query "select 1 as test"
 
        Logs into Azure using Universal with MFA Support with a certificate, then performs a sample query. Note that you will be prompted for a password but the password can be left blank and the certifiate will be used instead.
 
    #>

    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory, ValueFromPipeline)]
        [Alias("Connstring", "ConnectionString")]
        [DbaInstanceParameter[]]$SqlInstance,
        [PSCredential]$SqlCredential,
        [string]$Database = (Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName 'sql.connection.database'),
        [ValidateSet('ReadOnly', 'ReadWrite')]
        [string]$ApplicationIntent,
        [switch]$AzureUnsupported,
        [string]$BatchSeparator,
        [string]$ClientName = (Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName 'sql.connection.clientname'),
        [int]$ConnectTimeout = ([Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.Connection.ConnectionHost]::SqlConnectionTimeout),
        [switch]$EncryptConnection = (Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName 'sql.connection.encrypt'),
        [string]$FailoverPartner,
        [int]$LockTimeout,
        [int]$MaxPoolSize,
        [int]$MinPoolSize,
        [int]$MinimumVersion,
        [switch]$MultipleActiveResultSets,
        [switch]$MultiSubnetFailover,
        [ValidateSet('TcpIp', 'NamedPipes', 'Multiprotocol', 'AppleTalk', 'BanyanVines', 'Via', 'SharedMemory', 'NWLinkIpxSpx')]
        [string]$NetworkProtocol = (Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName 'sql.connection.protocol'),
        [switch]$NonPooledConnection,
        [int]$PacketSize = (Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName 'sql.connection.packetsize'),
        [int]$PooledConnectionLifetime,
        [ValidateSet('CaptureSql', 'ExecuteAndCaptureSql', 'ExecuteSql')]
        [string]$SqlExecutionModes,
        [int]$StatementTimeout = (Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName 'sql.execution.timeout'),
        [switch]$TrustServerCertificate = (Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName 'sql.connection.trustcert'),
        [string]$WorkstationId,
        [string]$AppendConnectionString,
        [switch]$SqlConnectionOnly,
        [string]$AzureDomain = "database.windows.net",
        #[ValidateSet('Auto', 'Windows Authentication', 'SQL Server Authentication', 'AD Universal with MFA Support', 'AD - Password', 'AD - Integrated')]
        [ValidateSet('Auto', 'AD Universal with MFA Support')]
        [string]$AuthenticationType = "Auto",
        [string]$Tenant = (Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName 'azure.tenantid'),
        [string]$Thumbprint = (Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName 'azure.certificate.thumbprint'),
        [ValidateSet('CurrentUser', 'LocalMachine')]
        [string]$Store = (Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName 'azure.certificate.store'),
        [switch]$DisableException
    )
    begin {
        $azurevm = Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName azure.vm
        #region Utility functions
        if ($Tenant -or $AuthenticationType -in 'AD Universal with MFA Support', 'AD - Password', 'AD - Integrated' -and ($null -eq $azurevm)) {
            Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Determining if current workstation is an Azure VM"
            # Do an Azure check - this will occur just once
            try {
                $azurevmcheck = Invoke-RestMethod -Headers @{"Metadata" = "true" } -URI http://169.254.169.254/metadata/instance?api-version=2018-10-01 -Method GET -TimeoutSec 2 -ErrorAction Stop
                if ($azurevmcheck.compute.azEnvironment) {
                    $azurevm = $true
                    $null = Set-DbatoolsConfig -FullName azure.vm -Value $true -PassThru | Register-DbatoolsConfig
                } else {
                    $null = Set-DbatoolsConfig -FullName azure.vm -Value $false -PassThru | Register-DbatoolsConfig
                }
            } catch {
                $null = Set-DbatoolsConfig -FullName azure.vm -Value $false -PassThru | Register-DbatoolsConfig
            }
        }
        function Invoke-TEPPCacheUpdate {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param (
                [System.Management.Automation.ScriptBlock]$ScriptBlock
            )

            try {
                [ScriptBlock]::Create($scriptBlock).Invoke()
            } catch {
                # If the SQL Server version doesn't support the feature, we ignore it and silently continue
                if ($_.Exception.InnerException.InnerException.GetType().FullName -eq "Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Sdk.Sfc.InvalidVersionEnumeratorException") {
                    return
                }

                if ($ENV:APPVEYOR_BUILD_FOLDER -or ([Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.Message.MEssageHost]::DeveloperMode)) { Stop-Function -Message }
                else {
                    Write-Message -Level Warning -Message "Failed TEPP Caching: $($scriptBlock.ToString() | Select-String '"(.*?)"' | ForEach-Object { $_.Matches[0].Groups[1].Value })" -ErrorRecord $_ 3>$null
                }
            }
        }
        #endregion Utility functions

        #region Ensure Credential integrity
        <#
        Usually, the parameter type should have been not object but off the PSCredential type.
        When binding null to a PSCredential type parameter on PS3-4, it'd then show a prompt, asking for username and password.
 
        In order to avoid that and having to refactor lots of functions (and to avoid making regular scripts harder to read), we created this workaround.
        #>

        if ($SqlCredential) {
            if ($SqlCredential.GetType() -ne [System.Management.Automation.PSCredential]) {
                Stop-Function -Message "The credential parameter was of a non-supported type. Only specify PSCredentials such as generated from Get-Credential. Input was of type $($SqlCredential.GetType().FullName)"
                return
            }
        }
        #endregion Ensure Credential integrity

        # In an unusual move, Connect-DbaInstance goes the exact opposite way of all commands when it comes to exceptions
        # this means that by default it Stop-Function -Messages, but do not be tempted to Stop-Function -Message
        if ($DisableException) {
            $EnableException = $false
        } else {
            $EnableException = $true
        }

        $loadedSmoVersion = [AppDomain]::CurrentDomain.GetAssemblies() | Where-Object {
            $_.Fullname -like "Microsoft.SqlServer.SMO,*"
        }

        if ($loadedSmoVersion) {
            $loadedSmoVersion = $loadedSmoVersion | ForEach-Object {
                if ($_.Location -match "__") {
                    ((Split-Path (Split-Path $_.Location) -Leaf) -split "__")[0]
                } else {
                    ((Get-ChildItem -Path $_.Location).VersionInfo.ProductVersion)
                }
            }
        }

        #'PrimaryFilePath' seems the culprit for slow SMO on databases
        $Fields2000_Db = 'Collation', 'CompatibilityLevel', 'CreateDate', 'ID', 'IsAccessible', 'IsFullTextEnabled', 'IsSystemObject', 'IsUpdateable', 'LastBackupDate', 'LastDifferentialBackupDate', 'LastLogBackupDate', 'Name', 'Owner', 'ReadOnly', 'RecoveryModel', 'ReplicationOptions', 'Status', 'Version'
        $Fields200x_Db = $Fields2000_Db + @('BrokerEnabled', 'DatabaseSnapshotBaseName', 'IsMirroringEnabled', 'Trustworthy')
        $Fields201x_Db = $Fields200x_Db + @('ActiveConnections', 'AvailabilityDatabaseSynchronizationState', 'AvailabilityGroupName', 'ContainmentType', 'EncryptionEnabled')

        $Fields2000_Login = 'CreateDate', 'DateLastModified', 'DefaultDatabase', 'DenyWindowsLogin', 'IsSystemObject', 'Language', 'LanguageAlias', 'LoginType', 'Name', 'Sid', 'WindowsLoginAccessType'
        $Fields200x_Login = $Fields2000_Login + @('AsymmetricKey', 'Certificate', 'Credential', 'ID', 'IsDisabled', 'IsLocked', 'IsPasswordExpired', 'MustChangePassword', 'PasswordExpirationEnabled', 'PasswordPolicyEnforced')
        $Fields201x_Login = $Fields200x_Login + @('PasswordHashAlgorithm')
        if ($AzureDomain) { $AzureDomain = [regex]::escape($AzureDomain) }
    }
    process {
        if (Test-FunctionInterrupt) { return }

        foreach ($instance in $SqlInstance) {
            if ($instance.IsConnectionString) {
                $connstring = $instance.InputObject
                $isconnectionstring = $true
            }
            if ($instance.Type -eq 'RegisteredServer' -and $instance.InputObject.ConnectionString) {
                $connstring = $instance.InputObject.ConnectionString
                $isconnectionstring = $true
            }

            if ($isconnectionstring) {
                try {
                    # ensure it's in the proper format
                    $sb = New-Object System.Data.Common.DbConnectionStringBuilder
                    $sb.ConnectionString = $connstring
                } catch {
                    $isconnectionstring = $false
                }
            }

            # Gracefully handle Azure connections
            if ($connstring -match $AzureDomain -or $instance.ComputerName -match $AzureDomain -or $instance.InputObject.ComputerName -match $AzureDomain) {
                # so far, this is not evaluating
                if ($instance.InputObject.ConnectionContext.IsOpen) {
                    $currentdb = $instance.InputObject.ConnectionContext.ExecuteScalar("select db_name()")
                    if (($Database -and ($Database -eq $currentdb))) {
                        $instance.InputObject
                        continue
                    }
                }
                $isAzure = $true
                # Use available command to build the proper connection string
                # but first, clean up passed params so that they match
                $boundparams = $PSBoundParameters
                [object[]]$connstringcmd = (Get-Command New-DbaConnectionString).Parameters.Keys
                [object[]]$connectcmd = (Get-Command Connect-DbaInstance).Parameters.Keys

                foreach ($key in $connectcmd) {
                    if ($key -notin $connstringcmd -and $key -ne "SqlCredential") {
                        $null = $boundparams.Remove($key)
                    }
                }
                # Build connection string
                if ($connstring) {
                    $azureconnstring = $connstring
                } else {
                    if ($Tenant) {
                        $azureconnstring = New-DbaConnectionString -SqlInstance $instance -AccessToken None -Database $Database
                    } else {
                        $azureconnstring = New-DbaConnectionString @boundparams
                    }
                }

                if ($Tenant -or $AuthenticationType -eq "AD Universal with MFA Support") {
                    if ($Thumbprint) {
                        Stop-Function -Message "Thumbprint is unsupported at this time. Sorry, some DLLs were all messed up."
                        return
                    }

                    $appid = Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName 'azure.appid'
                    $clientsecret = Get-DbatoolsConfigValue -FullName 'azure.clientsecret'

                    if (($appid -and $clientsecret) -and -not $SqlCredential) {
                        $SqlCredential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential ($appid, $clientsecret)
                    }

                    if (-not $azurevm -and (-not $SqlCredential -and $Tenant)) {
                        Stop-Function -Message "When using Tenant, SqlCredential must be specified."
                        return
                    }

                    if (-not $Database) {
                        Stop-Function -Message "When using AD Universal with MFA Support, database must be specified."
                        return
                    }

                    if (-not $SqlCredential) {
                        Stop-Function -Message "When using Tenant, SqlCredential must be specified."
                        return
                    }
                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Creating renewable token"
                    $accesstoken = (New-DbaAzAccessToken -Type RenewableServicePrincipal -Subtype AzureSqlDb -Tenant $Tenant -Credential $SqlCredential)
                }

                try {
                    # this is the way, as recommended by Microsoft
                    # https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/security/encryption/configure-always-encrypted-using-powershell?view=sql-server-2017
                    try {
                        $sqlconn = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlConnection $azureconnstring
                    } catch {
                        Write-Message -Level Warning "Connection to $instance not supported yet. Please use MFA instead."
                        continue
                    }
                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message $sqlconn.ConnectionString
                    # assign this twice, not sure why but hey it works better
                    if ($accesstoken) {
                        $sqlconn.AccessToken = $accesstoken
                    }
                    $serverconn = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ServerConnection $sqlconn
                    Write-Message -Level Verbose -Message "Connecting to Azure: $instance"
                    # assign it twice, not sure why but hey it works better
                    if ($accesstoken) {
                        $serverconn.AccessToken = $accesstoken
                    }
                    $null = $serverconn.Connect()
                    $server = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server $serverconn
                    # Make ComputerName easily available in the server object
                    Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName IsAzure -NotePropertyValue $true -Force
                    Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName ComputerName -NotePropertyValue $instance.ComputerName -Force
                    Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName DbaInstanceName -NotePropertyValue $instance.InstanceName -Force
                    Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName NetPort -NotePropertyValue $instance.Port -Force
                    Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName ConnectedAs -NotePropertyValue $server.ConnectionContext.TrueLogin -Force
                    # Azure has a really hard time with $server.Databases, which we rely on heavily. Fix that.
                    <# Fixing that changed the db context back to master so we're SOL here until we can figure out another way.
                    # $currentdb = $server.Databases[$Database] | Where-Object Name -eq $server.ConnectionContext.CurrentDatabase | Select-Object -First 1
                    if ($currentdb) {
                        Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName Databases -NotePropertyValue @{ $currentdb.Name = $currentdb } -Force
                    }#>

                    $server
                    continue
                } catch {
                    Stop-Function -Message "Failure" -ErrorRecord $_ -Continue
                }
            }
            #region Safely convert input into instance parameters
            <#
            This is a bit ugly, but:
            In some cases functions would directly pass their own input through when the parameter on the calling function was typed as [object[]].
            This would break the base parameter class, as it'd automatically be an array and the parameterclass is not designed to handle arrays (Shouldn't have to).
 
            Note: Multiple servers in one call were never supported, those old functions were liable to break anyway and should be fixed soonest.
            #>

            if ($instance.GetType() -eq [Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.Parameter.DbaInstanceParameter]) {
                [DbaInstanceParameter]$instance = $instance
                if ($instance.Type -like "SqlConnection") {
                    [DbaInstanceParameter]$instance = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server($instance.InputObject)
                }
            } else {
                [DbaInstanceParameter]$instance = [DbaInstanceParameter]($instance | Select-Object -First 1)

                if ($instance.Count -gt 1) {
                    Stop-Function -Message "More than on server was specified when calling Connect-SqlInstance from $((Get-PSCallStack)[1].Command)" -Continue -EnableException:$EnableException
                }
            }
            #endregion Safely convert input into instance parameters

            #region Input Object was a server object
            if ($instance.Type -like "Server" -or ($isAzure -and $instance.InputObject.ConnectionContext.IsOpen)) {
                if ($instance.InputObject.ConnectionContext.IsOpen -eq $false) {
                    $instance.InputObject.ConnectionContext.Connect()
                }
                if ($SqlConnectionOnly) {
                    $instance.InputObject.ConnectionContext.SqlConnectionObject
                    continue
                } else {
                    $instance.InputObject
                    [Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.TabExpansion.TabExpansionHost]::SetInstance($instance.FullSmoName.ToLowerInvariant(), $instance.InputObject.ConnectionContext.Copy(), ($instance.InputObject.ConnectionContext.FixedServerRoles -match "SysAdmin"))

                    # Update cache for instance names
                    if ([Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.TabExpansion.TabExpansionHost]::Cache["sqlinstance"] -notcontains $instance.FullSmoName.ToLowerInvariant()) {
                        [Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.TabExpansion.TabExpansionHost]::Cache["sqlinstance"] += $instance.FullSmoName.ToLowerInvariant()
                    }
                    continue
                }
            }
            #endregion Input Object was a server object

            #region Input Object was anything else
            if ($instance.Type -like "SqlConnection") {
                $server = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server($instance.InputObject)

                if ($server.ConnectionContext.IsOpen -eq $false) {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.Connect()
                }
                if ($SqlConnectionOnly) {
                    if ($MinimumVersion -and $server.VersionMajor) {
                        if ($server.versionMajor -lt $MinimumVersion) {
                            Stop-Function -Message "SQL Server version $MinimumVersion required - $server not supported." -Continue
                        }
                    }

                    if ($AzureUnsupported -and $server.DatabaseEngineType -eq "SqlAzureDatabase") {
                        Stop-Function -Message "Azure SQL Database not supported" -Continue
                    }
                    $server.ConnectionContext.SqlConnectionObject
                    continue
                } else {
                    if (-not $server.ComputerName) {
                        Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName IsAzure -NotePropertyValue $false -Force
                        Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName ComputerName -NotePropertyValue $instance.ComputerName -Force
                        Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName DbaInstanceName -NotePropertyValue $instance.InstanceName -Force
                        Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName NetPort -NotePropertyValue $instance.Port -Force
                        Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName ConnectedAs -NotePropertyValue $server.ConnectionContext.TrueLogin -Force
                    }
                    if ($MinimumVersion -and $server.VersionMajor) {
                        if ($server.versionMajor -lt $MinimumVersion) {
                            Stop-Function -Message "SQL Server version $MinimumVersion required - $server not supported." -Continue
                        }
                    }

                    if ($AzureUnsupported -and $server.DatabaseEngineType -eq "SqlAzureDatabase") {
                        Stop-Function -Message "Azure SQL Database not supported" -Continue
                    }

                    [Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.TabExpansion.TabExpansionHost]::SetInstance($instance.FullSmoName.ToLowerInvariant(), $server.ConnectionContext.Copy(), ($server.ConnectionContext.FixedServerRoles -match "SysAdmin"))
                    # Update cache for instance names
                    if ([Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.TabExpansion.TabExpansionHost]::Cache["sqlinstance"] -notcontains $instance.FullSmoName.ToLowerInvariant()) {
                        [Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.TabExpansion.TabExpansionHost]::Cache["sqlinstance"] += $instance.FullSmoName.ToLowerInvariant()
                    }
                    $server
                    continue
                }
            }

            if ($isconnectionstring) {
                # this is the way, as recommended by Microsoft
                # https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/security/encryption/configure-always-encrypted-using-powershell?view=sql-server-2017
                $sqlconn = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlConnection $connstring
                $serverconn = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.ServerConnection $sqlconn
                $null = $serverconn.Connect()
                $server = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server $serverconn
            } elseif (-not $isAzure) {
                $server = New-Object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server($instance.FullSmoName)
            }

            if ($AppendConnectionString) {
                $connstring = $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectionString
                $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectionString = "$connstring;$appendconnectionstring"
                $server.ConnectionContext.Connect()
            } elseif (-not $isAzure -and -not $isconnectionstring) {
                # It's okay to skip Azure because this is addressed above with New-DbaConnectionString
                $server.ConnectionContext.ApplicationName = $ClientName

                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'BatchSeparator') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.BatchSeparator = $BatchSeparator
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'ConnectTimeout') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectTimeout = $ConnectTimeout
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'Database') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.DatabaseName = $Database
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'EncryptConnection') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.EncryptConnection = $true
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'LockTimeout') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.LockTimeout = $LockTimeout
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'MaxPoolSize') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.MaxPoolSize = $MaxPoolSize
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'MinPoolSize') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.MinPoolSize = $MinPoolSize
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'MultipleActiveResultSets') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.MultipleActiveResultSets = $true
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'NetworkProtocol') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.NetworkProtocol = $NetworkProtocol
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'NonPooledConnection') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.NonPooledConnection = $true
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'PacketSize') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.PacketSize = $PacketSize
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'PooledConnectionLifetime') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.PooledConnectionLifetime = $PooledConnectionLifetime
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'StatementTimeout') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.StatementTimeout = $StatementTimeout
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'SqlExecutionModes') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.SqlExecutionModes = $SqlExecutionModes
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'TrustServerCertificate') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.TrustServerCertificate = $TrustServerCertificate
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'WorkstationId') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.WorkstationId = $WorkstationId
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'ApplicationIntent') {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.ApplicationIntent = $ApplicationIntent
                }

                $connstring = $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectionString
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'MultiSubnetFailover') {
                    $connstring = "$connstring;MultiSubnetFailover=True"
                }
                if (Test-Bound -ParameterName 'FailoverPartner') {
                    $connstring = "$connstring;Failover Partner=$FailoverPartner"
                }

                if ($connstring -ne $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectionString) {
                    $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectionString = $connstring
                }

                try {
                    # parse out sql credential to figure out if it's Windows or SQL Login
                    if ($null -ne $SqlCredential.UserName -and -not $isAzure) {
                        $username = ($SqlCredential.UserName).TrimStart("\")

                        # support both ad\username and username@ad
                        if ($username -like "*\*" -or $username -like "*@*") {
                            if ($username -like "*\*") {
                                $domain, $login = $username.Split("\")
                                $authtype = "Windows Authentication with Credential"
                                if ($domain) {
                                    $formatteduser = "$login@$domain"
                                } else {
                                    $formatteduser = $username.Split("\")[1]
                                }
                            } else {
                                $formatteduser = $SqlCredential.UserName
                            }

                            $server.ConnectionContext.LoginSecure = $true
                            $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectAsUser = $true
                            $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectAsUserName = $formatteduser
                            $server.ConnectionContext.ConnectAsUserPassword = ($SqlCredential).GetNetworkCredential().Password
                        } else {
                            $authtype = "SQL Authentication"
                            $server.ConnectionContext.LoginSecure = $false
                            $server.ConnectionContext.set_Login($username)
                            $server.ConnectionContext.set_SecurePassword($SqlCredential.Password)
                        }
                    }

                    if ($NonPooled) {
                        # When the Connect method is called, the connection is not automatically released.
                        # The Disconnect method must be called explicitly to release the connection to the connection pool.
                        # https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/server-management-objects-smo/create-program/disconnecting-from-an-instance-of-sql-server
                        $server.ConnectionContext.Connect()
                    } elseif ($authtype -eq "Windows Authentication with Credential") {
                        # Make it connect in a natural way, hard to explain.
                        # See https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/relational-databases/server-management-objects-smo/create-program/connecting-to-an-instance-of-sql-server
                        $null = $server.Information.Version
                        if ($server.ConnectionContext.IsOpen -eq $false) {
                            # Sometimes, however, the above may not connect as promised. Force it.
                            # See https://github.com/sqlcollaborative/dbatools/pull/4426
                            $server.ConnectionContext.Connect()
                        }
                    } else {
                        if (-not $isAzure) {
                            # SqlConnectionObject.Open() enables connection pooling does not support
                            # alternative Windows Credentials and passes default credentials
                            # See https://github.com/sqlcollaborative/dbatools/pull/3809
                            $server.ConnectionContext.SqlConnectionObject.Open()
                        }
                    }
                } catch {
                    $originalException = $_.Exception
                    try {
                        $message = $originalException.InnerException.InnerException.ToString()
                    } catch {
                        $message = $originalException.ToString()
                    }
                    $message = ($message -Split '-->')[0]
                    $message = ($message -Split 'at System.Data.SqlClient')[0]
                    $message = ($message -Split 'at System.Data.ProviderBase')[0]

                    Stop-Function -Message "Can't connect to $instance" -ErrorRecord $_ -Continue
                }
            }

            # Register the connected instance, so that the TEPP updater knows it's been connected to and starts building the cache
            [Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.TabExpansion.TabExpansionHost]::SetInstance($instance.FullSmoName.ToLowerInvariant(), $server.ConnectionContext.Copy(), ($server.ConnectionContext.FixedServerRoles -match "SysAdmin"))

            # Update cache for instance names
            if ([Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.TabExpansion.TabExpansionHost]::Cache["sqlinstance"] -notcontains $instance.FullSmoName.ToLowerInvariant()) {
                [Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.TabExpansion.TabExpansionHost]::Cache["sqlinstance"] += $instance.FullSmoName.ToLowerInvariant()
            }

            # Update lots of registered stuff
            if (-not [Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.TabExpansion.TabExpansionHost]::TeppSyncDisabled) {
                foreach ($scriptBlock in ([Sqlcollaborative.Dbatools.TabExpansion.TabExpansionHost]::TeppGatherScriptsFast)) {
                    Invoke-TEPPCacheUpdate -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock
                }
            }

            # By default, SMO initializes several properties. We push it to the limit and gather a bit more
            # this slows down the connect a smidge but drastically improves overall performance
            # especially when dealing with a multitude of servers
            if ($loadedSmoVersion -ge 11 -and -not $isAzure) {
                try {
                    if ($server.VersionMajor -eq 8) {
                        # 2000
                        $initFieldsDb = New-Object System.Collections.Specialized.StringCollection
                        [void]$initFieldsDb.AddRange($Fields2000_Db)
                        $initFieldsLogin = New-Object System.Collections.Specialized.StringCollection
                        [void]$initFieldsLogin.AddRange($Fields2000_Login)
                        $server.SetDefaultInitFields([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Database], $initFieldsDb)
                        $server.SetDefaultInitFields([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Login], $initFieldsLogin)
                    } elseif ($server.VersionMajor -eq 9 -or $server.VersionMajor -eq 10) {
                        # 2005 and 2008
                        $initFieldsDb = New-Object System.Collections.Specialized.StringCollection
                        [void]$initFieldsDb.AddRange($Fields200x_Db)
                        $initFieldsLogin = New-Object System.Collections.Specialized.StringCollection
                        [void]$initFieldsLogin.AddRange($Fields200x_Login)
                        $server.SetDefaultInitFields([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Database], $initFieldsDb)
                        $server.SetDefaultInitFields([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Login], $initFieldsLogin)
                    } else {
                        # 2012 and above
                        $initFieldsDb = New-Object System.Collections.Specialized.StringCollection
                        [void]$initFieldsDb.AddRange($Fields201x_Db)
                        $initFieldsLogin = New-Object System.Collections.Specialized.StringCollection
                        [void]$initFieldsLogin.AddRange($Fields201x_Login)
                        $server.SetDefaultInitFields([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Database], $initFieldsDb)
                        $server.SetDefaultInitFields([Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Login], $initFieldsLogin)
                    }
                } catch {
                    # perhaps a DLL issue, continue going
                }
            }

            if ($SqlConnectionOnly) {
                $server.ConnectionContext.SqlConnectionObject
                continue
            } else {
                if (-not $server.ComputerName) {
                    # Not every environment supports .NetName
                    if ($server.DatabaseEngineType -ne "SqlAzureDatabase") {
                        try {
                            $computername = $server.NetName
                        } catch {
                            $computername = $instance.ComputerName
                        }
                    }
                    # SQL on Linux is often on docker and the internal name is not useful
                    if (-not $computername -or $server.HostPlatform -eq "Linux") {
                        $computername = $instance.ComputerName
                    }
                    Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName IsAzure -NotePropertyValue $false -Force
                    Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName ComputerName -NotePropertyValue $computername -Force
                    Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName DbaInstanceName -NotePropertyValue $instance.InstanceName -Force
                    Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName NetPort -NotePropertyValue $instance.Port -Force
                    Add-Member -InputObject $server -NotePropertyName ConnectedAs -NotePropertyValue $server.ConnectionContext.TrueLogin -Force
                }
            }

            if ($MinimumVersion -and $server.VersionMajor) {
                if ($server.versionMajor -lt $MinimumVersion) {
                    Stop-Function -Message "SQL Server version $MinimumVersion required - $server not supported." -Continue
                }
            }

            if ($AzureUnsupported -and $server.DatabaseEngineType -eq "SqlAzureDatabase") {
                Stop-Function -Message "Azure SQL Database not supported" -Continue
            }

            $server
            continue
        }
        #endregion Input Object was anything else
    }
}